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Full text of "68 Micro Journal Volume 03 Number 01"

YOUFR CHOICE-smart either way 

• Over 140 software driven functions 

• 82 x 24 or 82 x 20 screen format — software selectable 

• High resolution 7x12 matrix characters — P 31 green phosphor 

• Upper/lower case character set — plus graphics character set 

• 56-key alphanumeric keyboard — plus 12-key cursor, numeric pad 

• Internal editing functions — insert, delete, scroll, roll, slide, etc. 

• Parallel printer I/O port 

• 50 to 38,400 baud operation — programmable 

• Cursor type, cursor position, print control characters, protected fields, 
shift inversion, dual intensity and many other features 

8212 — twelve-inch diagnonal screen or 8209 — nine-inch diagnonal screen 




SOUTHWEST TECHNICAL PRODUCTS CORPORATION 

21 9 W. RHAPSODY 

SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS 78216 (512) 344 0241 



Multi-User 



UniFLEX is the first full capability multi-user 
operating system available for microprocessors. 
Designed for the 6809 and 68000. it offers its 
users a very friendly computing environment. 
After a user 'logs-in' with his user name and 
password, any of the system programs may be 
run at will. One user may run the text editor 
while another runs BASIC and still another runs 
the C compiler. Each user operates in his own 
system environment, unaware of other user 
activity. The total number of users is only 
restricted by the resources and efficiency of the 
hardware in use. 



The design of UniFLEX, with its hierarchical file 
system and device independent I O, allows the 
creation of a variety of complex support 
programs. There is currently a wide variety of 
software available and under development. 
Included in this list is a Text Processing System 
for word processing functions, BASIC interpreter 
and precompiler for general programming and 
educational use. native C and Pascal 
compilers for more advanced programming, 
sort merge for business applications, and a 
variety of debug packages The standard 
system includes a text editor, assembler, and 



about forty utility programs UniFLEX for 6809 is 
sold with a single CPU license and one years 
maintenance tor $450.00. Additional yearly 
maintenance is available for $100.00 OEM 
licenses are also available. 



FLEX 






Multi-Tasking 



UniFLEX is a true multi-tasking operating system. 
Not only may several users run different 
programs, but one user may run several 
programs at a time. For example, a 
compilation of one file could be initiated while 
simultaneously making changes to another file 
using the text editor. New tasks are generated 
in the system by the 'fork' operation. Tasks may 
be run in the background or 'locked' in mam 
memory to assist critical response times. Inter- 
task communication is also supported through 
the pipe' mechanism. 



UniFLEX is offered for the advanced 
microprocessor systems. FLEX, the industry 
standard for 6800 and 6809 systems, is offered 
for smaller, single user systems. A full line of FLEX 
support software and OEM licenses are also 
available. 



Box 2570, West I IN 47906 

(317) 463-250? '>'« 

"UniFLEX and FLEX are trademarks of Technical 
tems Consultants, i 



t 



9 



68 



Portions of text prepared using the following. 

SWTPC 6800-6809-OMAF2-C0S1-CT82-Sprlnt 3 

Southwest Technical Products 

219 W. Rhapsody 

San Antonio, Texas 7B216 

IOITOR - WORD PROCESSOR 
Technical Systems Consultants, Inc. 
Box 2573, W. Lafayette, IN 47906 
FLEX Is TM of TSC 

GIMIX Super Mainframe-Assorted merory boards 

GIMIX Inc. 

1337 West 37th Place 

Chicago, I I 60609 



Publisher: Don Williams Sr. 

Executive Editor: Larry Williams 

Subscriptions and Office manager 
Mary Robertson 



General Girl 'Friday* 
Joyce Will lams 



Contributing Editors: 

Dr. Jack Bryant 

Dr. Chuck Adams 

Dr. Theo Elbert 

Or. Jeffery Brownsteln 

Dale Puckett 

Russel I Gore 

Ron Anderson 

John Jordon 

Dennis Wonack 

* CONTENTS * 

FLEX USER NOTES 9 Anderson 

GIMIX GRAND PRIZE WINNER. II 

UNIFLEX. .Final Part 12 Shirk 

RUMORS 1$ BMW 

INDEX 1960 16 1980 Index 

BOOKS 16 Rev I ew 

RADIO SHACK COLOR 1 7 Review 

MC6809 CPU for the 80s...t8 Ahem & Browne 

DYNAMITE 23 Review 

Zlngg for the SWTPC AC30.26 Hall 

BIT BUCKET 28 all of us 

HELP 31 

CLASSIFIED 31 

2 



MICRO 



JOURNN. 



Send All Correspondence To: 

'68' Micro Journal 

3018 Hamill Rd. 

PO Box 849 

Hixson, Tennessee 37343 

— Phone — 
Office: 615-870-1993 
Plant: 615-892-7544 
Copyright O 1980 

'68' Micro Journal is published 12 times a year by 68' 
Micro Journal. 6131 Airways Blvd.. Chattanooga. TN 
37421. Second Class postage paid at Chattanooga, TN. 
Postmaster: Send Form 3579 to '68' Micro Journal, PO 
Box 849. Hixson, TN 37343. 



1-Year $18.50 2-Year $32.50 3-Year $H8.50 



-ITEMS SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION - 
(Letters to the Editor for Publication) All letters to the 
Editor' should be substantiated by facts. Opinions should 
be indicated as such. All letters must be signed. We are 
interested in receiving letters that will benefit or alert our 
readers. Praise as well as gripes is always good subject 
matter. Your name may be withheld upon request. If you 
have had a good experience with a 6800 vendor please 
put it in a letter. If the experience was bad put that in a 
letter also. Remember, if you tell us who they are then it is 
only fair that your name not' be withheld. This means that 
all letters published, of a critical nature, cannot have a 
name withheld. We will attempt to publish verbatim' 
letters that are composed using good taste.' We reserve 
the right to define (for '68' Micro) what constitutes good 
taste. 

(Articles and items submitted for publication) Please, 
always include your full name, address, and telephone 
number. Date and number all sheets. TYPE them if you 
can. poorly handwritten copy is sometimes the difference 
between go, no-go. All items should be on 8X11 inch, 
white paper. Most all art work will be reproduced photo- 
graphically, this includes all listings, diagrams and other 
non-text material. All typewritten copy should be done 
with a NEW RIBBON. All hand drawn art should be black 
on white paper. Please no hand written code items over 
50 bytes. Neatly typed copy will be directly reproduced. 
Column width should be 3V* inches. 

(Advertising) Any Classified: Maximum 20 words. All 
single letters and/or numbers will be considered one (1) 
word. No Commercial or Business Type Classified 
advertising-. Classified ads will be published in our 
standard format. Classified ads $7.50 one time run, paid 
in advance. 

Commercial and/or Business advertisers please write 
or phone for current rate sheet and publication lag time. 



Be Micro Journal 




L(3QK 

WHAT'S COOKING 

on the FIFTY BUS 

32K STATIC RAM BOARDS 

Designed for use with: 
• Existing SS50 Systems • SS50C Extended Address Systems 

• Assembled 

• Burned In 

• Tested 



THE CLASSY CHASSIS Jg 





$898.19 



16K 
24K 
32K 



$328.12 
$438.14 
$548.15 



16K and 24K Versions are 
socketed tor32K and require 
only additional 2114's lor 
expansion. 



• Write protect either ot two 16K sections 

• Low power consumption - uses 2114L low 
power RAMS 

• Fully Socketed 

• Gold Bus Connectors 

• Guaranteed 2MHz operation 



FEATURES: 

• Oecodlng lor 4 Extended Address Lines (allows 
memoiy decoding up to 1 megabyte) 

• OlP-swltch to set extended addressing or disable It 

• 4 separate 8K blocks, addressable to any 8K 
boundary by OiP-swilch 

• Each BK block may be Individually disabled 

AND NOW . . . GIMIX OFFERS YOU A 
Choice of 6800 or 6809 CPU CARDS 

You can order your system to fit your needs or select one ol the below featured systems. 
Please contact the factory for further information and availability. 

Add as much memoiy as you need using GIMIX Sialic RAM Cards lor the utmost in reliability. 

32K 6800 SYSTEM $1 ,694.59 

Includes: Chassis. 6800 CPU, 32K RAM BOARD, 1/0 card 

32K 6809 SYSTEM $1 ,844.69 

includes: Chassis. 6809 CPU. 32K RAM BOARO. I/O card 

32K 6809 PLUS SYSTEM $1,994.79 

Includes: Chassis. 32KRAM BOARO. I/O Card, and features our 6809 PLUS CPU Card with the Time of Oay 
Clock option with battery back- up installed, as well as the 6B40 Timer Package that provides 3 independent 
16 bit counters. 

This system also allows the following options to be added at additional cost: 

• Battery back-up ot the 1K HAM by substituting CMOS parts 

• A 9511 or 9S12 Arithmetic Processor 

• GIMIX or SWTP Dynamic Address Translators. 



• 25 amp (5V) ferro- resonant constant voltage 
power supply, 

• Heavy weight aluminum cabinet wllrt 3 position 
key switch, Ian, and provisions lor two 5" disk 
drives; 

• 6BOO/6809 Mother Board, fifteen SO pin and 
eight DIP- switch addressable 30 pin slots (gold 
plated pins), lully decoded; 

• Baud rale generator on I/O section ot 
Mother Board 

I/O BOARDS 
for the 30 PIN BUS: 

1 Port Serial S 88.41 
(RS 232 or 20MA, current loop) 

2 Porl RS 232 Serial 128.43 
2 Port Parallel 88.42 

for the 50 PIN BUS: 

8 Port RS 232 Serial 288.40 

8 Port RS 232 Serial 318.46 

with on board Baud Rate generator 

8 Pon Parallel. 198.45 

DOTH 6809 SYSTEMS 

FEATURE OUR 

NEW TERMINAL BASED 

GMXDUG 09 SYSTEM MONITOR 

GMXBUG 09 includes advanced debugging 

tools, utility, and memory manipulation 

routines. 

Both 6809 Syttems; 

• Can be reconfigured to allow use of other 
system monitors (OS-9 and SBUG-E) 

• include 1K ot Scratchpad RAM on the CPU 

• Allow optional software switching of system 
monitors . 

2MHz 6809s at slight additional cost when they 
become available. 



EXPORT NOTES: 

For SOH:?30VC.V POWER SUPPLY AddS30 00 

80 x 24 VIDEO BOARDS - Spec y FOrnlll (NO Added Clurgg) 

On Oman una* wso 00 w l Sinsd 8w9. a Cw»» . W* AM W 00 tunang «no wt *• an* Air Ma* Pupae 
On all arntr »aar» « »«l iNp vtt (nwy Ait FfUgni cmki. ano « mu cfiarjt no Mnaling All onMn mutt M 
ptaoaBinU S. FuriM PWm noli llul tvtign (ImcIu Km HMO U«infl about «ghl M*M tot ttMdkm. KM 
oould MVM Kiting morwy ot cTmtt diiw* on i dim account to tut U S Gut bank i» M CMIInanul iNaog) 
IWtaiil Bank <* Cnugn Aauwil 1 73-32013 Vtu 0> UlBat CWipa «IK> JCCtotoO 



Phone, write, or see your dealer for details and 
prices on our broad range of Boards and 
Systems for the SS50/SS50C bus and our AC 
Power Control Products for all computers. 



FACTORY PRIME STATIC RAMS 




21141 450 ns . $5.90 300 ns . . $6.40 200 ns . 


. $6.90 


4044 450 ns $5.90 250 ns $6 90 




ADO »00 HANOL1W OX OAOWS UN«A WOO 00 





<& 



Gimix 



QIMIX* andOHOST* ate Registered T red etna tits Ol GIMIX INC. 

See Ghost Ad Pages 36,39,40,48 



The Company thai delivers 
Quality Electronic products since 1975. 

1337 WEST 37th PLACE, CHICAGO, IL 60609 
(312)927-5510 • TWX 910-221-4055 



OS-9" MULTIPROGRAMMING 
OPERATING SYSTEM 



A" 



true multitasking, real time 
operating system for timesharing, 
software 
development, database. 
process control, and 
other genera] applications 
This versatile OS runs on almost any 
6809-based computer. 

■ UNIX '" like file system with 
hierarchical directories, byte- 
addressable random-access files, and full 
file security. 

■ Versatile, easy-to use input/output 
system is hardware independent and 
expandable to support almost any device 
with interrupt-driven, program- control, 
or BMA data transfer. 

■ Powerful "shell" command interpreter 
features: I/O redirection, multiple job 
stream processing, and more. Includes a 
comprehensive set of utility command 
programs. 

■ OS-9 Level 1\uo uses hardware 
memory management and can address 
over one megabyte of memory. Also 
includes pipes and filters for inter-process 
data transfers. 

■ OS-9 Level One runs on systems 
without memory management hardware 
having up to S6K memory. 

□ OS-9 Level Two 
Operating System $495.00* 

□ OS-9 Level One 
Operating System $150.00* 



INTRODUCING 



6809 



SOFTWARE 
POWER 
TOOLS 



and edited. 

■ Buffer, line and character oriented 
commands. 

■ Search, change and extend operations. 

■ Permits multiple input/output files. 

□ Disk or tape $75.00 

□ ROM sel (27 16) $90.00 



OS-9*" 
INTERACTIVE ASSEMBLER 



STYLOGRAPH" 
WORD PROCESSOR 

A full-feature screen -oriented word 
processing system for interactive 
. document entty and editing. Has 
cursor-oriented commands with dynamic 
screen refresh so the display is an exact 
image of the printed text. 

■ Editing commands include: line and 
character insertion and deletion; global 
string searching and replacement; "cut 
and paste" text rearrangement, etc. 

■ Formatting commands for: paging; 
left, right and center justification; 
headers and footers: line length and 
margins; and much more. 

■ I/O drivers for many popular video 
terminals including Hazeltine, ADDS, 
SWTPC, CIMIX and others. 

□ Standard version $135.00 
D Special version for 

propoitional printers $150.00 



BY MICROWARE 



E 



BASIC*'" 
PROGRAMMING 
I.ANCUACE SYSTEM 

xtended BASIC language 
compiler/interpreter with 
integrated text editor and debug 
package. Runs standard BASIC programs 
or minimally-modified PASCAL programs. 

■ Permits multiple named program 
modules having local variables and 
identifiers. Modules are reentrant, 
position independent and ROMable. 

■ Additional control statements for 
structured programming: IF . . . THEN 
. . . ELSE, FOR ... NEXT, REPEAT . . . 
UNTIL. WHILE ... DO, LOOP . . . 
ENDLOOP. EXITIF . . . ENDEXIT. 

■ Allows user-defined data types and 
complex data structures. Five built-in 
data types: byte, integer, 9 digit 
floating-point, string and boolean. 

■ Outperforms any other BASIC on any 
8-bit MPU. 

■ Available on ROM. disk or cassette 
tape. Runs under OS-9'" Level One or 
Level Two. 

□ Disk or tape $195.00* 



M; 



OS 9" TEXT 
EDITOR 



inimum-keystroke macro text 
editor useful for text 
preparation or interactive 
word processing. 

■ User-defined macros with 
parameters permit virtually 
unlimited command expansion. 
Macros can be saved, loaded 



Compact Motorola compatible 
assembler for machine language 
program development. 

■ Operates in "batch" mode or 
interactive line-by-line mode. 

■ Facilities for generation of OS-*" 
memory modules and system calls. 

■ Formatted listings include syntax and 
context error checking. 

■ Runs on OS-9" Level One or 
Level Two. 

□ Disk or tape $75.00 

□ ROM sel (2716) $90.00 



F 



OS-9" 
INTERACTIVE 
DEBUGGER 



acilitates testing and debugging of 
machine- language programs. 

■ Includes common "monitor" 
functions: memoiy examine/change, 
breakpoints, display/change registers, etc. 

■ Calculator mode evaluates arithmetic 
expressions in hex. decimal or binary. 

■ Access to system commands. 

■ Available on ROM. disk or 
cassette tape. 

□ Disk or tape $35.00 

□ ROM (2716) $50.00 

BASIC IB is a trademark of Motorola. OS-9 is a 
trademark of Motorola and Mkroware*. UNIX is a 
trademark of Bell Telephone Laboratories. 

Most software is available on ROM. 
diskette and tape in versions for many 
popular 6809 computers. Source listings 
and yearly maintenance/update service 
are sold separately for most programs. 

'Specify manufacturer and type of CPU 
and I/O controllers. Contact Microware* 
for specific availability. 



K» MICROWARE 



Microware Systems Com,. Itept. M3 
5835 Grand Avenue 
Iks Moines. Iowa 50301 
IS15I 279-8841 




Ti 



A/BASIC COMPILER 

'his BASIC compiler generates 
pure. fast, efficient 6800 machine 
language from easy to write BASIC 
source programs. Uses 
ultra-fast integer math, 
extended string 
functions, boolean 
operators and real-time 
operations. Output is ROMahle and runs 
without any nm- time package . Disk 
versions have disk I/O statements and 
require 12 K memory and host DOS. 
Cassette version runs in 8K and 
requires RT/68 operating system. 

□ Disk Extended Version 2.1 

SSB or FLEX* Diskette $150.00 
P Cassette Version I.O. $65.00 



INNOVATION AND 
PERFORMANCE 



6800 



RT/6H REAL TIME 
OPERATING SYSTEM 



SOFTWARE 

SUPER 

POWER 



MIKBliC — compatible ROM that combines 
an improved monitor/ debugger with a 
powerful multitasking real-time operating 
system. Supports up to 16 
concurrent tasks at 8 priority 
levels plus real time clock 
and interrupt control. 
Thousands in use since 1976 handling all 
types of applications. Available on 6830 
(MIKBUG-type) or 2708<EPROM-type) ROM. 
Manual is a classic on 6800 real-time 
applications and contains a full source 
program listing. 

D RT68MX (6830) $55.00 
□ RT68MXP (27081 $55.00 



8Y MICROtt/ARE 



A 



A/BASIC SOURCE 
GENERATOR 

n "add-on" option for A/BASIC 
Compiler disk versions that adds 
an extra third pass which gener- 
ates a full assembly-language output 
listing and assembly language source file. 
Uses original BASIC names and inserts 
BASIC source lines as comments. 

□ SSB or FLEX" Diskette $75.0* 



A/BASIC INTERPRETER 

Here it is - a super-fast A/BASIC 
compiler! Now you can inter- 
actively edit, execute and debug 
A/BASIC programs with the ease of an in- 
terpreter - then compile to super efficient 
machine language. Also a superb stand- 
alone applications and control- oriented 
interpreter. Requires 8K RAM. The cassette 



version is perfect for Motorola D2 kits. 
□ Cassette, SSB or FLEX' Diskette $95.00 



Ti 



l.ISP INTERPRETER 

he programming Language LISP 
offers exciting new possibilities for 
microcomputer applications. A 
highly interactive interpreter that uses 
list-type data structures which are simul- 
taneously data and executable instructions 
LISP features an unusual structured, 
recursive function-oriented syntax. Widely 
used for processing, artificial intelligence, 
education, simulation symbolic, and 
computer-aided design. 6800 LISP requires 
a minimum of 12K RAM. 
□ Cassette. SSB or FLEX* 
Diskette $75.00 



'FLEX Is i trademark of Technical Systems 
Consultants 



A 




6H00 CHESS 

challenging chess program for 
the 6800. Two selectable difficulty 
levels. Displays formatted chess 

boared on standard terminals. Requires 

8K memory. Machine language with 

AflASIC source listing. 

□ Cassette, SSB or FLEX* Diskette $50.00 

Our software is available for most 6800 
systems on cassette or diskette unless 
otherwise noted. Phone orders welcomed. 
We accept MASTKKCHAKGE and VISA. 
We try to ship orders within 24 hours of 
receipt. Please call or write if you require 
additional information or our free 
catalog. Microware* software is available 
for OEM and custom applications. 



K MICROWARG* 



Micruware Systems Corpora twn 
P.O. flax W65. Iks Moines, 1A 50301 
15151 279-8844 



MICROSOFT DISK EXTENDED BASIC FOR OS-9 



Microsoft Basic is by far the world's most popular Basic 
language — and a vast library of applications software 
written for it can be used on your system: business 
packages, scientific, engineering and educational programs, games, 
etc. The 0$-9'" version of Microsoft Basic is a full implementation 
of Release 5.0 with the following features: 

■ Four variable types: Integer. String. Single Precision Floating 
Point (7 Digit). Double Precision Floating Point (16 Digit). 

■ Full PRINT USING for formatted output (includes asterisk fill, 
floating $. scientific notation, trailing sign, comma insertion). 

■ Trace Facilities for program debugging. 

■ Extensive program editing facilities via EDIT command 

■ Matrices with up to 255 dimensions. 

■ IFTHENE1.SE and WHILE/WEND for structured 
programming. 

■ Automatic Line numbering and renumber. 



■ Dynamic string space allocation. 

■ Random and sequential file I/O with variable length records. 

■ Protected files can he saved in coded binary format. 

■ CHAIN and COMMON statements — programs may be linked 
together and share common variables. 

This version of Microsoft Basic is not just a reassembled 6800 
Basic — it has been enhanced to take full advantage of the 6809 
and OS-9" superior capabilities. It is also a reliable Basic that you 
can count on for your important programs. 
□ Microsoft Extended Basic Release 5.0 for OS-9!" $250.00 

D Also available: Standard Microsoft 6810 or 6809 Basic 
-= — Release 4.51 for Flex". Many features of OS-9'" version. 
$250.00 Trademark of Technical Syslu/ns Consultants 



SWM MICROWARG. 



^= 5835 Grand, Box 1865. Ifes .Moines. IA 50OM • (5I5| 27*«K44 



SOFTWARE... 
CT1SI has mDREJ 

WE INVITE YOU TO LOOK AT OUR NEW SOFTWARE CATALOG 
WHICH OFFERS NEW PROGRAMS FOR YOUR 6800 SYSTEM. 

•All FLEX'" Programs from TSC are now available for MSI Computer Systems. 

'MULTI-DISK FLEX'" from MSI allows the use of any combination of MSI disk devices to be used 
simultaneously, including the HD-8/R 10 megabyte drive. 

•SORT/MERGE Program can be used manually or within other BASIC or assembler programs 
to perform high speed sorts of data files. 

•Hemenway Associates Software Products for use under FLEX" are available on the 
MSI System. 

•TRS-80/MICROSOFT BASIC - MSI BASIC Translator allows MSI users to run 
the large library of basic programs written for the TRS-80 and other similar 
systems. 

•SOFTWARE LIBRARY Programs keep track of all diskette and hard disk 
directories, giving alphabetical listings of available programs. 

•SDOS Operating System. 

•MULTI-USER/MULTI-TASKING SDOS Operating System allows any user to 
perform edits, assemblies, compilations, or program executions 
independently and simultaneously. 

•All MSI software is supported on four (4) disk systems: quad density minifloppy, 
single and double density 8" floppy, as well hard disk systems. 

'Complete BUSINESS APPLICATION PACKAGES including sales order entry, accounts 
receivable, inventory management, purchase order entry, accounts payable, and general 
ledger are available on MSI hard disk systems. 

•PLOTTING PACKAGE gives daisy-wheel printers the capacity to perform graphics operations. 

•LETTERWRITER Word Processing Software allows the use of daisy-wheel printers to generate 
documents and to handle correspondence automatically. 

FLEX** il « regstensd liaOemar* of Technical Systems Coniulllnn Ine 

Send for your catalog today. 

midwest Scientific instruments 

220 W. Cedar ' Olathe, Kansas 66061 ♦ 913-764-3273 
TWX 910 749 6403 (MSI OLAT) Telex 42525 (MSI A OLAT) 






SB** : 




V\ 



>■ ' 




<"" Vi'. wi p'«^ «e*o , * s _-.*•' <""* H ;. o 



FRANK HOGG , 



DEBTAL L&JJ0IUT0R7 
130 Kidtrwi; Plia 
7SC Ei:'. Witcr St 
Syraeost. ST 13210 

[3161 474-78S6 



All vjfrwor. h tvrrafttty »oi1obl« on FW* 7.0 S" ion lottorod dbkt ond OMAF S" Flu di»kv Th» pacing, 
indudov a Mo manual, dttk will, ob|«cf todo. FULLY COMMtNTED SOURCE LISTING, a programming 
manual with IriformaHan about tna program, hint* for changai ond whaia opprkobt*. tiamplt program* 



VISA and MC aoMpMd. SOURCE TCF33* 

DEALER INQUIRY ENCOURAGED CanteO fronk Hogg «or mora intormolron. 

ATTENTION *t06«AMMBtS I 

Wo or* looking for qualify *offwor» to martial. Contact Frank Hogg. 



JCP it o»oiloW» m 6800 



ui* caH rogarding 6809 o*ailobilrt>. 




'68' Micro Journal- 



DISK DRIVES - SAVE - $AVE 

ft Limited Quantity ft 

A Special Purchase for 68' Micro 
Journal Readers Only! 

SAVE HUNDREDS OF $ 



Remex RFD4000 

8 " Floppy Disc Drives 
Double sided . . . 
Double density! ! 



$549.95 



ea. 




SIEMENS - Model #282 

5V4 " Floppy Disc Drives 
Double Sided . . 
Double Head! ! ^^ 
(Similar to Photo), 



2 for $1049.00 
Add: $7.50 each - Shipping and Handling 
Offers quality and features found in drives 
costing much more! ■ Single or Double Den- 
sity ■ Double-sided Drive ■ Door Lock IN- 
CLUDED ■ Write-Protect INCLUDED ■ 90 
Day Warranty ■ Compatible with Shugart850 
■ Low Power Operation ensures LONGER 
LIFE!! 



$279.95 



ea. 




Add $6.50 each for Shipping and Handling 
90 Day Warranty 

riWith each Siemens 5Va° Drive purchased, 
we will include (for a limited time) a Bare 
SWTPC (Double Sided) DC-3 Controller 
Board with Schematics and Parts list at no 
extra charge!! 



FACTORY FRESH — LATEST PRODUCTION — BRAND 

NEW 

Single Disk System Copy Routine in Assembled Source Included for a Complete 

'Single Drive' Disk System 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 

Cannot guarantee supply will last if paid for by personal check as personal checks 
require 3-4 weeks to clear - Recommend Money Order or Certified Bank Check. 

South East Media 

P.O. Box 794 Htxson, TN 37343 
1-615-870-1993 

VERBATIM DISKS 

Min. Order 10(1 Box) 

8* Soft Sector Single Sided 

Double Density S3. 75 ea. 

8" Soft Sector Double Sided 

Double Density $4.75 ea. 

8" Plastic Library Box $5.00 ea. 

Add $1.50 Shipping and Handling 
Also; Oume Black Multistrike Ribbons $3.87 ea. - Qume Black Nylon Ribbons $2.97 ea. 
DEALER AND VOLUME DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 

. '68' Micro Journal 



5" Soft Sector 


$2.92 ea. 


5' 10-16 Sector 


$2.92 ea. 


5" Soft Sector Double Sided 




Double Density 


$4.92 ea. 


5" Plastic Library Box 


$2.00 ea. 



Flex User Notes 



UNFOLDING A DISK 



Have you ever received a disk nicely folded or 
crushed by 1he U.S. Post Office? I have received several 
In that condition, and recently I sent one to a reader 
who received It In non-working condition, and wrote 
asking me If I had any techniques for recovering such a 
disk. I have had to perform surgery on a disk several 
times, and have always been successful In recovering 
llie Information. First of all, don't ttirow away the next 
disk that yoii find worn out or badly scratched (the 
magnetic medium) but save the outside Jacket. First, 
separate the "flap" of the Jacket at the end opposite 
the slot for the read/write head access. You will find 
this flap Is "welded" or heat sealed together. After 
opening this end of the Jacket, carefully cut the flap 
off entirely and remove and 1hrow away 1t e magnetic disk 
Inside, that was bed to begin with. 

Mhen you receive a disk that has the jacket 
creased or crushed so the disk won't turn Inside, do 
the same thing to ft, being very careful not to damage 
the magnetic disk Inside. Then, remove the disk from 
the Jacket and carefully place It In the previously 
prepared good Jacket. Be careful to place It In 1tie 
Jacket In the same orientation In which It was removed 
from the damaged one, le. don't "flip" It. Now, If the 
disk Itself has not been damaged, you will be able to 
copy It. In general. It works best to close the door of a 
drive (which engages the drive with ttie center of the 
disk) wltti the drive motor running. This helps center 
the disk on the spindle. It also prevents ttie "crinkling" 
around ttie edge of the center hole of the disk. Since 
the disk In 1hb case Is free to back out of the Jacket, 
It Is more Important to be sure ttie drive Is running 
when ttie door Is closed. I've used this technique to 
rescue among other disks, my first copy of FLEX2 which 
SHTPC shipped Inside the Instruction manual wllh no 
cardboard softeners. The mailman folded the 9 by 12 
envelope In half and stuffed It In the mailbox. I also 
recovered my first copy of Lucldato Pascal 1tils way, 
and I have used the technique a couple of times on disks 
sent by readers. 

If you do tills, I strongly recommend copying the 
Information onto a new disk that Is In good shape. A disk 
running In an open Jacket for any length of time will 
accumulate dust and dirt and wear out or become 
damaged much sooner than one In a closed jacket. 

MORE ON PASCAL 

Due to favorable response on the short Item on 
Pascal and ways of checking for variables being within 
reasonable range, I offer this time, a program called 
DATE. DATE does not contain all ttie features of Pascal, 
and Indeed, It would be hard to write a useful example 
program that does. However, DATE Is a relatively simple 
program that Illustrates well the use of several 
features of the language. A Pascal program always 
takes the same form or outline. The first line must be 
PROGRAM followed by the name of the program. The 
following sections must be In order but any section may 
not be present In a given program: 



PROGRAM (PROGRAM NAME); 

LABEL 10,20,30; 

CONST 

PI - 3.T4159265; 
NUMBER - 3; 

'68' Micro Journal 



TYPE 

DAYS - I.. 32; 

VAR 

CH : CHAR; 
N : INTEGER; 

PROCEDURE PROCEDURENAME (PARAMETER : INTEGER); 

BEGIN 

{• PROCEDURE IS A BLOCK WITH ANY OR ALL OF 
THE ABOVE DECLARATIONS. ANY VARIABLES 
DECLARED HERE ARE "LOCAL" TO THIS 
PROCEDURE. *> 

END; 

(• THIS IS A COMMENT. THERE MAY BE ANY NUMBER 
OF PROCEDURES AND A PROCEDURE MAY "CALL" 
ANOTHER PROCEDURE. ALL CALLS 
MUST BE TO PREVIOUSLY DECLARED PROCEDURES •) 

(* AFTER ALL PROCEDURES, THE MAIN PROGRAM STARTS •) 

BEGIN 

(* BODY OF MAIN PROGRAM HERE *) 

END. 



Note that In the program DATE, there are no 
constants declared nor are any labels used. A label 
Implies the use of a GOTO somewhere In the program. 
Most of the proponents of structured programming feel 
the GOTO to be a no-no. There are a few Instances 
where avoiding a GOTO Is so complicated 11iat It makes 
the program less structured 1ftan using one. For these 
cases, the GOTO has been provided. It should not be 
abused. DATE also doesn't have any constants declared. 
It does, however have some TYPE declarations. MONTHS 
Is declared as an "enumerated" type having 12 possible 
values, all of which are listed In ttie declaration. Pascal 
not only "notes" these 12 values but their order may be 
used later In the program. The variables DAYS and 
YEARS, are called subrange types. In that they are 
really both of the type INTEGER, but they may not be 
assigned or otherwise take on the whole range of 
possible Integer values. DAYS Is limited to the values 
from I to 32, and years from to 99. The VAR 
declarations define the variables to be used In the 
program. MONTH Is of 1he type MONTHS, DAY of the type 
DAYS, and YEAR of the type YEARS. There are some 
predeclared types In Pascal, namely INTEGER, REAL, 
CHAR, and BOOLEAN. Of course an Integer Is what we call 
a whole number, and a REAL contains a decimal fraction 
or an Integer plus a decimal fraction. Constants take on 
the type of the value assigned to them. Thus In the 
example above, PI Is a REAL variable and N Is an 
INTEGER. If we declared a variable SWITCH - TRUE; we 
would have defined SWITCH as a BOOLEAN constant. 
BOOLEAN variables have the value TRUE or FALSE. We 
could declare our own type BOOL ° (ON, OFF); and use 
these values rattier than TRUE and FALSE. 

This brings us to the first procedure In the 
DATE program, PROCEDURE ENTERDATE; This procedure 
has no parameters passed to It. It operates on the 
variables that have been declared as part of Ihe main 
program, DAY, MONTH, AND YEAR. It prompts for the 
month number and Inputs a response from ttie terminal. 
It then enters a loop, after assigning MONTH the value 
JAN. The loop Increments a counter K until It Is equal 
to N, the month number, and "Increments" ttie variable 
MONTH through 1he list of months wl1ti the Instruction 
MONTH :« SUCC (MONTH);. The SUCC means SUCCESSOR or 
next value In the list of values assigned In the TYPE 
declaration. If we were to use SUCC (DEC); we would be In 
trouble since DEC Is ttie last value and the list Is not 



assumed to "wrap around". In any case, we have now 
assigned -the value of ttie month to MONTH. The WHILE 00 
loop tests for the condition at the start of the loop, 
which means It may not be executed at all Of n-l). 
Before this loop, K Is set to I. If the Month Input was 
JAN, we don't want to get Into the Increment loop, and 
the WHILE DO takes care of that. The ENTEROATE 
procedure similarly and In a simpler manner gets the 
day and year from the operator. WRITELN; all by Itself, 
Is the same as PRINT by Itself In BASIC It simply causes 
a linefeed and carriage return. 

The procedure INCREMENT Is more Interesting. 
It "figures out" whether DAY hes been Incremented past 
the end of the current month, and In that case, updates 
the nonlh and day. We have not here updated the year 
on DEC 3 2, though that would be very simple. In fact, one 
could test for the year being divisible by 4 and allow 
for FEB 29 In a leap year. To continue with the program, 
DAY Is first Incremented. The program then tests for 
the shortest month, a single case, with an and of the 
conditions MONTH - FEB and DAY - 29. If this test Is 
true, tlie DAY Is set to 1 and tlie MONTH to MAR. The 
next test Is for the 30 day months, and Its working 
should be obvious by now. If the DAY gets to 32, 
obviously the monttt Is not' one of tlie shorter ones, and 
this test Is sufficient to reset the DAY to 1 and 
Increment the month. Note that DEC Is trapped by the IF 
MONTH ■ DEC, and the other months are taken care of by 
the ELSE MONTH :- SUCC(MONTH); 

Although an enumerated type like MONTH may 
take on the values listed, the simple command WRITE 
(MONTH); doesn't cause the printing of the value of 
MONTH to the terminal. Instead, the procedure 
SHOWDATE must be used. The Pascal CASE statement Is 
the same as the ON N GOTO statement In BASIC, except 
that you don't have to calculate a value 1,2, 3, etc. for 
the "on" variable. The structure Is adequately 
Illustrated In the program. The syntax Is CASE 
VARIABLENAME OF, followed by a list- of possible cases as 
labels, with the consequence following each label. The 
result Is like a series of IF-THEN statements, IF MONTH 
■ JAN THEN WRITE ("JAN")j IF MONTH ■= FEB THEN WRITE 
("FEB"); etc Standard Pascal gives an error message If 
In this case for example, MONTH has a value other than 
one of those listed In the case statement. In this 
program, we have used all the possible values of MONTH 
so that Is not a possibility. Some of the Pascal 
Implementations have attempted to "fix" this by adding 
an OTHERWISE to the end of tlie case structure to catch 
any other values not listed In 1lie case structure. 

The last line of SHOWDATE Is the write 
statement. WRITELN followed by a list of variables of 
literal strings In quotes. Is like a PRINT In BASIC 
without a comma or seml-coton at the end. That Is, a 
linefeed and CR are generated at 1tie end of the line. In 
this case, we have already output the MONTH, and this 
line adds the value of DAY and YEAR. The ":2" following 
the variable name DAY and YEAR specifies tha the 
Integer number Is to be printed In a field of 2 columns. 

In the case of his example, the main program Is 
really nothing but a test routine for the procedures. If 
these procedures were to be Included n a larger 
program, the main program there would probably drive 
these procedures perhaps asking for the date on power 
up, and updating the date on the basis of a real time 
clock reaching Midnight. The REPEAT UNTIL structure 
looks for the condition after 1ha UNTIL to test TRUE. 
The condition In the main program here Is essentially 
REPEAT UNTIL FALSE - TRUE, which of course can't 
happen. This Is therefore an "Infinite" loop 1tat may be 
exited only by a reset or power off condition. 

I hope tills quick tour through a Pascal program 
will point out the tact that the main structures of 
Pascal will be familiar to you, and the great flexibility 
In defining data types will make the program readable to 

10 



you and to another programmer. The line In the main 
program IF CH » "E" THEN ENTEROATE ELSE INCREMENT; 
calls either tlie procedure ENTERDATE or the procedure 
INCREMENT depending on the value of the character 
entered from the terminal. A procedure Is called simply 
by naming It. 

You may be wondering about the use of the 
semi-colon. It Is at first confusing, but It simply ends a 
statement. In a few cases, the statement Is terminated 
by another means and the semi-colon may be omitted. A 
compound statement Is one that starts with a BEGIN, 
containing two or more simple statements, that 
themselves end with a semi-colon, 1he whole compound 
statement ending with an EN0> The END terminates the 
compound statement and the statement proceeding It 
does not need the semi-colon, but most Pascal 
Implementations will not object If one Is there. The last 
statement before END In a CASE statement must not 
have a semi-colon, and you must be careful not to put 
one In the middle of a statement such as FOR N:« 1 TO 10 
DO; WRITE (N:2);. Willi the semi-colon after the DO, the 
loop will simply "count to Itself" to 10 and then execute 
the WRITE once. Without the extra punctuation, the 
whole thing becomes one statement, and the loop 
terminates at the proper place. I hope this little run 
through a Pascal program will convince you that It Is not 
so formidable after alL 
A REQUEST 

Some of you may have noticed that I haven't 
Included my phone number In the heading for this column. 
My number Is listed In Ann Arbor, and the Information 
operator will give It to you If you ask for It. when 1 was 
publishing a newsletter for 60 or so people, I received 
calls Infrequently, and there was no problem. '68' Micro 
Journal has a circulation of about 10,000. If one 
par-cent of you were to call me In one week of 
evenings, I would be driven slightly buggy. Please 
remember that this activity Is In addition to a full time 
Job, and respect my "I want to be alone" time In the 
evening. I won't turn down a long distance call, though I 
may be Irritated by It. If you have a "real emergency" 
please feel free to call. Otherwise, please allow me my 
time with my family and permit me the option of 
answering your question or helping with your problem at 
a time that Is convenient to me. I have so far answered 
every lelter I have received from you readers. I don't 
know If that will always be possible, but I will continue as 
long as 1 can. Please write If you have questions, 
problemsi comments, criticisms, etc. Some of the best 
material for this effort has resulted from your Input of 
questions. If you have a particularly perplexing 
problem, perhaps many others are experiencing the 
same problem and would like to have tlie answer too, or 
maybe one of our readers has solved the same problem 
for himself, and a mention of It here will bring a very 
good solution to you. 

A CLARIFICATION 

In the September Issue, there Is an article by 
Wilton Hart that provides a very good patch to FLEX2, 
which I have Implemented In my system In a slightly 
different manner than that described In the article. My 
doing tills was motivated by a letter from John Deal, one 
of our readers. John had first tried appending the 
patch to FLEX.C0R, and for some reason had no success. 
He then tried loading FLEX2, adding the patch and saving 
FLEX2. Probably because FLEX2 had already been 
ttirough 1tie Initializing portion, asking for the date and 
handling the STARTUP file, his saved version didn't ask 
for the date. Wilton Indicated that the boot program 
only loads FLEX2 and will not load the patch If It Is 
placed at SBFBI as he has done. The boot program, I 
assume only loads to tBFBO. Rather then perform a 
permanent modification to FLEX2, I chose to prepare 
the patch which I called FLEX0V, as a separate file with 
no trensfer address. 1 added my previously done overlay 
to change the head seek rate for my Shugart SA-400 

'68' Micro Journal 



drives, and modified the STARTUP file by adding 'GET 
FLEXOV.BIN. 0' as one of the Instructions. This of 
course loads the file, and It doesn't malter If the load 
overlays FLEX2, since now the Boot program Is long 
gone. 

Ttiere Is another advantage to this approach, In 
that FLEX2 Is not modified permanently. Your FLEX2.SYS 
file Is left Intact, and you will not have "different" 
versions on different disks, and additionally, you won't 
have the problem of having to figure out how to 
"unappend" FLEX2 If you ever want to undo the patch. 
To remove It all you need do Is delete the Instruction In 
the STARTUP file to get It. Another advantage Is ttiat 
you may combine your other patches with this one and 
save sectors on your system disk. If yours Is like mine, 
you have very few sectors left on It. This same 
approach, of course applies to Mlnlflex as welL The 
listing of my overlay Is Included here. By the way, thank 
you Wilton Hart for a super fix to Flex2l 

PROGRAM DATE; 

TYPE 

MONTHS - (JAN,FEB,MAR,APR,MAY,JUN,JUL,AUG,SEP,0CT,NOV,OEC 
DAYS - 1..32; 
YEARS ■ 0. .99; 



VAR 

MONTH : MONTHS; 
DAY : DAYS; 
YEAR : YEARS; 
01 : CHAR; 

PROCEDURE ENTERDATE; 

VAR 

K,N : INTEGER; 

BEGIN 

WRITE ("ENTER MONTH (I. .12)"); 

READ (N); 

WRITELN; 

MONTH :« JAN; K :■ I; 

WHILE K<>N DO 

BEGIN 

K:»K*I ; 

MONTH :« SUCC (MONTH) 
END; 

WRITE ("ENTER DAY (1..31)"); 

READ (DAY); 

WRITELN; 

WRITE ("ENTER YEAR (0..99)"); 
READ (YEAR); 
WRITELN; 
END; 

PROCEDURE INCREMENT; 

BEGIN 

DAY :■ DAYtl; 

IF (MONTH = FEB) AND (DAY - 29) THEN 

BEGIN 

DAY :■ 1; 

MONTH :" MAR; 
■NO; 

IF ((MONTH-APR) OR (MONTH-JUN) OR (MOHTK-SEP) 
AND (DAY-3D1HEN OR (MONTH-NOV)) 

BEGIN 

DAY :- 1; 

MONTH :■ SUCC (MONTH); 

END; 

IF DAY « 32 THEN 



BEGIN 








DAY 


:■ 1; 




IF MONTH - DEC THEN MONTH : 


ELSE 


MONTH 


= SlICC (MONTH); 


END; 






END; 






PROCEDURE 


SHOWDATE 


I 


BEGIN 






CASE MONTH OF 




JAN 


: WRITE 


("JAN") 




FEB 


; WRITE 


("FEB") 




MAR 


: WRITE 


("MAR") 




APR 


: WRITE 


("APR") 




MAY 


: WRITE 


( "MAY" ) 




J UN 


: WRITE 


("JUN") 




JUL 


: WRITE 


("JUL") 




AUG 


: WRITE 


("AUG") 




SEP 


: WRITE 


("SEP") 




OCT 


i WRITE 


("OCT") 




NOV 


: WRITE 


("NOV"), 




DEC 


: WRITE 


("DEC") 


END; (« 


CASE • 







JAN 



); 

WRITELN (", ",0AY:2,\ ".YEAR: 2); 
END; 

(* MAIN PROGRAM ») 

BEGIN 
REPEAT 

WRITE ("ENTER DATE(E) OR INCREMENT ( I )?"); 
READ (CH); 
WRITELN; 
WRITELN; 

IF CH = "E" THEN ENTERDATE ELSE INCREMENT; 
SHOWDATE; 
UNTIL FALSE; RONALD W. ANDERSON 

END 3540 STRUeRIDGE COURT 

ANN AR80R, Ml 48105 




'68' Micro Journal 



Left to right: Dan Farnsworth of Palm Beach Computers 
presents a new GIMIX mainframe to Grand Prize winner 
Brian F. Bailey of Plantation, Fiord la. 

Brian Bailey of Plantation, Flordla was presented with a 
new GIMIX Standard S50 Bus computer (value $900.00) at 
the November meeting of the South Florida Computer 
Group. This fine machine was donated by GIMIX, 133? 
West 37th Place, Chicago, IL 60609. 

Brian was a recent Grand Prize winner In the 
International Giant Software Contest, sponsored by 68 
Micro Journal and various manufacturers and vendors of 
Standard S50 Bus computers and software. 

Bailey's winning program Is to be made available by 
GIMIX for their customers. It will also be published In 68 
Micro Journal at some later date. 

Bailey Is an employee of Circle Line of New Yrok as 
Chief Marine Engineer. Bailey formlly attended Florida 

\ 11 



Technical University Orlando and RCA Institute In New 
York. His hobbles Include computers, ham radio and 
music 

Our congratulations to you 8rlan for a fine software 
utility. 



UNIFLEX 






lasss" 





■ * 



IV. The File System 

The UnlFLEX" operating system has three main 
functions, file maintenance, I/O control, and task 
scheduling. The structure of the file system Is 
probably the most Important, since design flaws here will 
Impair almost every program run on the system. Here 
again, the UNIX" file system was modeled quite closely. 

There are Itiree basic types of files, ordinary, 
directory, and special. The majority of files are 
ordinary tiles. These tiles are simply a collection of 
bytes, having no special meaning. There Is no concept 
of 'records' and no forced structuring of data. All files 
may be accessed either sequentially or randomly and 
may be as large as one billion bytes. 

All files In the system are 'protected' by a set 
of permission bits. These permission bits determine 
whether or not a file may be read, written, or 
executed. Two bits exist for each of these modes, one 
defining the permission for the file's owner, and 
another one for the permission of all others. As an 
example, 1tie owner of a file may set ttie permissions 
such 1tiat he may read or write the file, but all others 
may only read It. 

The second file type Is the directory. A 
directory Is exactly the same as an ordinary file with 
the exception that the data In the directory Is 
operating system defined. Each directory entry 
requires 16 bytes, 14 of which are used to store the 
file name, and the remaining two are used for the 'File 
Descriptor Node', or fdn for short. The fdn Is simply a 
16 bit number used to Identify the file on the disk. 
There Is no limit to 1he number of directories. 

The directories on the system form a 
hierarchical tree structure. The root of the tree Is 
called the 'root' directory. Any directory may contain 
entries which are names of other directories (or 
subdirectories). Each user of the system Is assigned his 
own directory. When a user Mogs-ln', this becomes his 
'current directory'. Since many files and directories 
exist on the system, a mechanism Is needed for 
specifying a particular file In a specific directory. 
This mechanism Is known as a 'path name'. The path name 



Is a list of directory names separated by slashes, all 
followed by the file name desired. As an example, the 
palh name '/usr/ John/test' tells the system to start In 
the root directory (specified by the leading '/■ In the 
path name), find the directory named 'usr' In the root, 
then scan 1hat directory for the directory named 
'John', and finally scan the directory 'John' for the 
file named 'test*. If a path name Is specified without 
1he leading '/', 1he search will start In the current 
directory as opposed to the root directory. 

All directories have at least two entries, one 
named '.', and one named '..'. These names are purely 
convention. The file '.' represents the directory 
Itself, and the file name '..' represents this 
directory's parent directory. The '. ' entry Is useful 
In referencing the current directory without knowing 
Its name, and the '..' entry Is used for reverse 
traversal of the directory tree. 

The permission bits previously described also 
apply to directories. If a user 'read' protects his 
directory, others will not be able to display the 
contents of the directory, and If the directory Is 
'write' protected, no new files may be placed In the 
directory. If a directory Is 'execute' protected, It 
may not be 'searched' for a specified file name, or as 
part of a path name. 

As an extension to the directory tree 
structure of a file system, another file system (disk 
unit or units) may be 'mounted' at any node of the tree. 
The mounting process effectively replaces an existing 
node (directory) with the root directory of the 
mounted file system. As an example, a system with two 
disk drives will use one of the drives as the system 
'root device', that Is, the drive containing the 
directory known as '/' to the system. In order to 
access the directories and files on the second drive. It 
Is only necessary to mount this device on an existing 
directory of the root device. The mounting operation 
will cause the contents of the selected directory to 
become Inaccessible, replacing Its contents with the 
root of the directory tree on the second drive. An 
'unmount* operation will restore the original directory. 
This procedure logically extends the notion of file 
names to allow access to any file on any currently 
mounted file system. 

A specific example will clarify the mount 
operation. Let's assume ihere Is a directory named 
*user2' In the root directory of the main system disk. 
Let's also assume that we have another disk which 
contains a file named 'test' In a directory named 
'source' In the root directory of that disk. Performing 
a mount of 1hls second disk onto the directory 'user2' 
will now allow access of the file 'test' with the following 
path name: 



/user2/source/test 



Note that no mention of 'device name' or device type 
was necessary to access this file. This structure allows 
several file systems to be connected together as one 
big tree, greatly simplifying overall file organization. 

The third type of file In UnlFLEX" Is the device 
(or special) file. All devices on the system appear as 
file names In directories, Just as regular files. Allot 
the devices are normally kept In the directory '/dev*. 
This means 1het programs which read and write file data 
may Just as easily read and write data to and from a 
device. As an example, to write data to a printer, the 
program could write to the file '/dev/prlnter'. Treating 
I/O devices In this way allows fairly device Independent 
I/O, In that file and device I/O operations are very 
similar. It also allows the same protection scheme used 
for files to work for devices. This mechanism of device 



12 



'68' Micro Journal 



files, or 'special files' Is Identical to that used by ttie 
UNIX" operating system. 

Since files and I/O devices are so similar, the 
same system I/O calls may be used for both. The 
UnlFLEX 4 system calls to perform I/O allow 'files' to be 
created, opened, read, wrllten, and deleted. The 
following examples show the calls as procedure calls In a 
general high level language form. The exact calling 
sequence Is defined by 1tie actual language In use. The 
call to open a file looks like this: 



opentname, mode) 



where 'name' Is 1he path name of the file to be opened 
and 'mode' specifies whelher the file should be opened 
for read, write, or update (both read and write). The 
open call returns a value called 1he 'file descriptor 1 
which Is used to Identify the file for future I/O 
operations. The file descriptor Is simply a number which 
the operating system associates with the file opened. 

The open call requires 1he specified file to 
already exist. To create a new file (or truncate an 
existing file to zero length), the 'create' system call Is 

used. 



createCname, permissions) 



This call also returns a file descriptor. The 
'permissions' argument specifies which permission bits 
should be associated with the file. Once the create has 
been executed, the file Is left 'opened for write'. 

To read data from an open file, the system call 
'read' Is used. 



position from the file's beginning, end, or current 
position, determined by the value of 'type'. This call 
returns the actual value of 1he resulting file pointer 
(bytes from ttie file beginning). Seeking beyond 1tie end 
of a file and reading will result In an end of file 
condition, while writing will simply extend the file to 
Include ttie wrllten data. It should be noted that file 
extensions allocate Just enough disk space to record 
the new data. As an example, performing a seek to byte 
10,000 In a file which has length of 100, and writing one 
character will produce a file of logical length 10,000, 
but only two disk blocks will be allocated to ttie file. 
Reading data from ttie file will yield null bytes where no 
disk space Is actually present. 

The disk 1/0 facilities of UnlFLEX" are quite 
efficient, allowing full processor overlap with disk 1/0 
transfers. The system maintains a disk block buffer 
cache used to keep the most recently accessed disk 
blocks In main memory. When a program requests data 
from a particular disk block, the system first searches 
Its memory buffer cache for the block. If It Is found, no 
disk transfer need be made. If It Is not found, ttie 
oldest block In the cache Is given up, and Its 
corresponding buffer Is replaced by ttie contents of 
the requested block. 

UnlFLEX" also supports full 'read ahead' and 
'write behind' data transfers. Reed ahead Implies that 
whenever the system needs to read a block of a file. It 
will automatically read the next sequential block as well. 
Since ttie disk reed operation Is overlapped wltti ttie 
CPU operation, very IHtle, If any, time Is wasted doing 
the additional read. Write behind means ttiat any data to 
be written to ttie disk Is simply placed In one of the 
cache buffers, and written at a convenient time. 
Programs writing data are not delayed until the write 
actually occurs. This combination of read ahead, write 
behind, and the block buffer cache, gives UnlFLEX" a 
superior 1/0 transfer rate. 



read(flle-desc, buffer, count) 



The 'flle-desc' Is the file descriptor returned by the 
open call. The argument 'buffer' Is a pointer to the 
space where 1he system will place the data from the 
file. The 'count' argument specifies the number of 
bytes wanted from ttie file. The corresponding 'write' 
operation Is similar. 



wrlte(f lle-desc, buffer, count) 



In 1tils case, 'count' bytes are written from 'buffer' to 
the file represented by the file descriptor. In both 
the read and ttie write calls, a value Is returned which 
Is ttie actual number of bytes reed or written. When 
writing, the returned value should always be equal to 
the requested 'count 1 , or an error has occured. The 
value returned by read does not need to equal the 
'count', and a returned value of zero represents the 
'end of file' condition. 



UnlFLEX" also supplies a mechanism for file 
'record locking'. This Is one area where the UNIX" 
operetlng system falls short. The system calk 



lrec(flle-desc, count) 



will lock 'count' bytes from 1tie current file pointer In 
the file represented by ttie file descriptor. The count 
size or record size may be anywhere from 1 to 65535 
bytes. The locking action Is more of a convention than 
an actual herd lock operation. After locking a section 
of a file, other programs may still read or write that 
section of ttie file without error. If another program 
tries to lock a section of a file which Is already locked, 
however, an error will result. This structure has proven 
to be very efficient In ttiat programs dealing wltti data 
base type files may make use of the lock mechanism and 
preserve data Integrity, while those working with 
regular files need not be concerned. A locked record 
may be unlocked by another lock call, closing 1tie file, 
or Issuing ttie 'urec' call to specifically unlock ttie 
record. 



Reading and writing may take place In any part 
of the file. Each open file has a 'file pointer' 
associated with It. Reads and writes start at the 
current position of this pointer and advance the 
pointer by the number of bytes transferred. An open 
operation sets the file pointer to the beginning of the 
file. The 'seek' system call allows repositioning of the 
file pointer. It has the form: 

see k(f lle-desc, offset, type) 



where ttie file descriptor selects the file, and the 
'offset' Is a byte count representing ttie relative 



'68' Micro Journal 



There are several additional system calls In 
UnlFLEX" pertaining to I/O. These Include file closing, 
deletion, and linking. Other calls exist to create new 
directories, change a file's owner and permissions, and 
get a file's status. 

V. Task Structure 

Each program under UnlFLEX" runs as a 
separate task, When a task Is actively running. It has 
Its own dedicated address space. This means that the 
task has ttie complete address space of 1tie CPU and any 
part of ttils space will either contain memory or be 

13 



totally void, No I/O devices or system code Is present 
when the task Is running. Each task Is assigned enough 
memory to hold Its program, data, and stack. The 
program (or text) size Is set at the Initial excutlon of 
the task and remains fixed. The data and stack 
segments may grow or shrink dynamically. The text part 
of a program may be 'shared' among all tasks currently 
executing 1he same program. This Is done automatically 
and tends to make more efficient use of available main 
memory. The operating system keeps a large amount of 
Information about each active task. Including which user 
started 1he task, the task Identifier, the current 
program size, amount of CPU time used, age of the task, 
and task activity Information. Tasks are scheduled CPU 
time based on their priority. The priority value Is 
constantly adjusted by the system to reflect the 
current status. 

New tasks are created by the 'fork' system 
calk The fork call causes 1he calling task to duplicate 
Itself, or split Into two Identical tasks. The complete 
address space of the calling task Is duplicated for the 
new task, as well as 1he task's complete environment. 
Including open files, etc. The new task starts 
execution upon return from the fork call. It may be 
distinguished from 1he parent In only one way. The fork 
call will return a value of zero to the new child task, and 
a value which represents the child's task Identifier 
(never zero) to 1he parent. This allows each task to 
determine If It Is 1fie child or the parent. The return 
from the 'fork' Is a little different at the assembly 
language leveL Here, the return to the original task Is 
two bytes beyond that of the new task. This allows the 
new task to perform a 'branch' Instruction before 
continuing. The child's task Identifier Is still returned 
to the parent task. 

There are no restrictions placed on what Itte 
new task can do. Normally, It will perform an 'exec' 
system call which will Invoke a new program. The form of 
the 'exec' call Is as follows: 



exectf lie-name, argument I, argument2, ..., argumentn) 



The 'file-name' Is 1he name of the program to be loaded 
and run. The calling task's address space Is replaced by 
tt\at of the called program. The 'arguments' are made 
available to the new program as an array of strings. 
Note that a return from an 'exec* to the calling task Is 
an error condition, usually because the specified file 
name was nor found or not executable. The 'exec' call 
can be thought of as a 'Jump' type Instruction where 
control Is passed to the first Instruction of the called 
program. Host of ttie task's environment parameters, 
such as open files, are preserved across the exec. 
Leaving files open allows for easy Implementation of 
the standard I/O mechanism. All tasks usually start with 
three files already open known as the standard I/O 
files, as previously described. These files have file 
descriptors for the standard Input, 1 for the 
standard output, and 2 for the standard error channel. 

A task which 'forks' another task may 'wait' for 
the child task to terminate. The wait system call will 
block the calling task until one of Its children tasks 
terminate. Upon termination, the wait call will return to 
the caller, returning the task Identifier and the 
termination status of the dead task. Tasks normally 
terminate by the 'term' system ca IL It has the form: 



t«rm( status) 



where status Is a value made available to the parent 
task. A status of zero Indicates normal termination, 
while nonzero specifies an error condition. A task may 
also be terminated by a 'program Interrupt'. Tasks have 

14 



a choice of Ignoring or catching these Interrupts to 
avoid termination. As an example, the Interrupt 
character (control C) Is sent as a program Interrupt to 
all tasks associated with the terminal producing It. 
Normally, this will terminate the task, but programs like 
the Text Editor choose to catch this Interrupt and take 
special action such as re-Issuing 1he prompt to accept 
another command. 

Tasks are run on a prioritized basis, the 
highest priority always being run. A task's priority Is 
constantly being adjusted to reflect Its size, age, and 
CPU activity. Tasks may also be swapped to secondary 
storage If the demand arises. The swap algorithm has 
built In hysteresis to avoid swapping out a task which 
has Just been swapped In but not permitted to run. 
UnlFLEX's" scheduling routine Is quite complex and 
tries to take In as many factors as possible when 
making scheduling decisions. As an example, tasks which 
have been Ignored for a long time tend to Increase In 
priority, and those which are hogging the system's 
resources are penalized. The Idea here Is to be as 
fair as possible to all tasks In the system. There Is 
only one system Imposed limit to the maximum number of 
tasks permitted In the system at any one time, the 
amount of memory available for the 'task table'. This 
does not tend to be a restriction since other hardware 
limitations tend to determine the useful maximum. 

There are several other system calls which 
pertain to tasks. These Include calls to get a task's 
Identifier, Its owner, and one to Incrementally adjust 
the priority over a small range. This last call Is 
particularly useful for setting lower priorities for 
tasks which are typically background Jobs. 



VI. UnlFLEX" Overview 

UnlFLEX" Is a very complete multi-user, 
multi-tasking operating system. It Is Intended to run 
with larger microcomputer systems and Is not well suited 
for the small memory, small disk systems. The decision 
to require memory segment management (not bank 
switching) and efficient disk devices eliminated all 
compromises In the design. Small machines should have 
small operating systems while sophisticated hardware 
configurations deserve nothing but the most 
sophisticated operating systems. Trying to write an 
operating system which works equally well with limited 
hardware configurations almost always results In a less 
than optimal system. 

One question which always arises when discussing 
multi-user operating systems Is 'How many users'? This 
Is a difficult question to answer because there are so 
many variables. UnlFLEX" can support any number of 
users, but the practical number ranges from two to 
about twenty on the 6809, and up to thirty-two on a 16 
bit microprocessor. In most environments, more 
terminals may be connected than the upper practical 
user limit since not all terminals will be In use at any 
given time. 



Many factors determine the maximum user 
count. These Include such things as the amount of main 
memory, the processor clock speed, number of different 
hard disk drives, number of hard disk controllers, the 
hardware I/O structure, the efficiency of the memory 
management unit, and response times desired. The 
amount of main memory affects the amount of swapping 
the system will perform. If a separate high speed disk 
Is used for swapping, less main memory Is required. If 
one disk Is being used for all system and user files, as 
well as swapping, additional memory will speed up the 
system significantly. The speed of the swapping disk Is 
also very Important. Those running with a floppy disk 
drive for swapping will see a definite decrease in 
system performance. 
r 68" Micro Journal 



Soma applications ere vary terminal I/O bound. 
Word processing Is one example. A system will generally 
be able to support more terminals for word processing 
than ttie same system could support for scientific or 
engineering applications. Business applications also 
tend to be very terminal I/O Intensive. Keep In mind, 
that a terminal which Is running a program waiting for 
Input, has almost no Impact on the system. Those 
environments which present ttils condition the majority 
of the time will be able to support many more users 
than those which are constantly running compute bound 
programs. Programs which generate a tremendous amount 
of output will degrade the system If the output Is 
displayed at high baud rates* This degradation may be 
overcome by a 'front-end' 1/0 processor. 

The final consideration In determining the 
number of users Is the response time required. 
Response time Is defined as the Interval of time from 
the Instance a keyboard entry Is made, until the 
expected response Is obtained. In many environments, 
the response time Is not critical. Many educational 
systems, for example, would rallier support more users 
at ttie cost of response time, since more users reduces 
the cost per student. All of these considerations are 
not peculiar to UnlFLEX", but apply to any multi-user 
system, regardless of size. 

The efficiency of an operating system can be 
partly determined by 1he amount of overhead required 
to perform a particular operation. UnlFLEX" was 
designed to keep system overhead at a minimum. Much of 
the current overhead Is hardware Imposed, but future 
systems promise to Improve on ttils. 

Since file activity Is usually the biggest 
bottleneck In multi-user systems, tlie file system must 
be very efficient. UnlFLEX" Is very efficient, not only In 
file storage overhead, but also In file transfers. The 
overhead Involved In file storage Is determined by the 
directory space. Hie file status Information, and the 
file mapping Information. In all, ttils Is typically less 
•tfian 81 overhead, a figure which Is very respectable. 

The disk transfer rate Is where UnlFLEX" really 
shines. As a comparison, consider ttie test presented In 
'The Bell System Technical Journal', July-August 1978, 
pages 1950-1951. This test compared three 
mini-computer operating systems by simply timing a disk 
file copy. The file was 480 blocks In length (245,760 
bytes) end was copied on a system which was otherwise 
Idle. This same test was run under UnlFLEX", on e 
Southwest Technical Products S/09 6809 computer 
system. The main system disk was a Century Data 
Marksman, which Is Winchester technology and holds 
approximately 17 megabytes of formatted data. The 
6809 was only running at one megahertz. The results of 
the test were as follows: 



system 

UnlFLEX" 

UNIX" 

IAS" 



seconds 

27 
21 
19 



msec. /block 

28.1 
21.8 
19.8 



Both UNIX" and IAS" were running on DEC POP 11/70's. It 
Is no surprise that UnlFLEX" places last, but It Is a 
surprise that It Is only about 231 slower than UNIX" on 
an 11/701 Increasing the speed of the processor to two 
megahertz should bring this value even closer (the 
total time would probably be reduced to about 24 
seconds). This test does not prove much. If anything, 
but It Is an Interesting comparison. 

This document Is not Intended to be a complete 
description of the UnlFLEX" operating system. Instead, 
It presents some of the system's highlights hopefully 
of Interest to the reader. 

'68' Micro Journal 



RUMORS 

New from SWTPC are two new CRT terminals, see 
Inside front cover this Issue. We have been using a 
couple for the past month or so and the sturdy 
construction and compatibility with the older CT-82 
make elttier a simple and logical upgrade. There are 
some very nice Improvements In utility as opposed to 
the CT-82, more on ttils In a review to come later. 

The MICRO WORKS has developed and will soon be 
delivering some new machine language software for ttie 
TRS-SOC'. 

The primary program, delivered on tape, 1$ a 
machine language monitor called CBUG. 



Also available soon but not tested as of ttils 
writing Is a disassembler for 6809 code, which allows 
disassembly of any program In RAM, Including BASIC, or 
any program pah. Program paks may be disassembled by 
covering a pek pin wltti tape and having the pak plugged 
In, more on ttils maybe next month as we want to test 
this to Insure tliat no damage will occur. 

My understanding Is that 1he first offerings of 
the 'Dissembler' require a printer (serial) attached to 
the output port for listing. This Is due to ttie required 
wldlh of a listing and the restriction (mandated by the 
6847 generator) of 32 characters screen width. Bob, of 
THE MICRO WORKS Informed me that a CRT screen version 
Is soon to follow. 

Also will be a general purpose pak board for 
Insertion of your own (or purchased) programs In EPROM, 
2716. This Inserts In ttie pok-slot on the side. 

Information has It that the present version of 
the SAM 6863 IC Is experiencing a larger than expected 
failure rate. If you need to order anottier they are 
already In the Tandy spare parts catalog. 

As of tt>b writing we know of TRS80C" machines 
that are expanded fully with a combination of dynamic 
and static RAM, 40K of useable memory. Also 'uploading 
and downloading' from the color computer to your 
Standard S50 bus machine Is possible using CBUG. 

The level II of BASIC Is not available as of 1Ms 
writing but expands the graphics by commands such as 
DRAWLINE, PAINT, STRING and Includes the trig and 
additional string functions, among other extended 
commands and functions. 

These programs allow machine and assembler 
language programming and also preserve calls to the 
TRS80-C" BASIC. 

I have found no serious bugs In CBUG and It is a 
powerful monitor, as the listing above indicates, 
especially for It's small size. 

A real flurry of advertisers for color computer 
software has come to us within the past few days. Some 
we are not accepting until we 'check It out', as Is our 
standard policy. 

Even Mickey Ferguson, well known 68XX author 
and occasional contributing editor to 68 Micro Journal, 
Is busy preparing color graphics software for the 
Tandy color machine. This has led to 1he formation of 
'COLORWARE"', devoted to serious and fun software for 
the TRSflOC". Good luck Mlckeyl 

Hope to have a review of the Computerware 
offerings next month or so. See advertisement this 
Issue. 

_15 



If you are planning to develope and advertise 
software or hardware for the TRS80C", then you should 
drop me a line. We have received a healthy batch of new 
subscribers, who have obtained a color computer. They 
will need to know. 



BOOKS 



Over ttie past few months we have been receiving 
books for review. This month we will look at one, from 
TAB, that many users will find useful. It Is a softback 
titled, THE MOST POPULAR SUBROUTINES IN BASICS It Is 
TAB book number 1050, and Is the effort of Ken Tracton. 

This entire offering Is a collection of ttiose 
subroutines that require a specific knowledge to write. 
As the cover suggest It Is 'not a theoretical manual, but 
a practical handbook for the professional and hobbyist'. 

For those who have a problem with math at all 
levels It Is a necessary programming tool. For the 
advanced programmer, not wishing to reinvent ttie wheel, 
It Is also a necessary programming tool. Physics, 
chemistry, math, calculas, metric conversions, 
electrical and mechanical engineering, finance and 
business subroutines are only a part of this book. An 
awful lot of material has been packed Into It's 183 
pages. 

It Is this reviewers opinion that this manual at 
$5.95 Is an excellent addition to any programmers 
library. 



Index '1980 



The following Is an INDEX of articles and other material 
published In 68 Micro Journal, for the year 1980. Some 
back Issues are available for $3.50 each plus mall and 
handling. 

JANUARY 1980: 

GIANT SOFTWARE CONTEST, sraff, age 8. SPIRIT, A NEW 
LANGUAGE, By Puckett, page 9. 32K FOR 1/2 PRICE, 
SWTPC 16/32K Memory board, by Puckett, page 11. 
INTERFACING THE HI-TYPER, by Carter, page 12. 
HEMENWAY'S CP/68, review by Adams, page 15. 6809 TO 
THE AM9511, by Farmer, page 21. CFM FILE LISTER, by 
Mlddaugh, page 26. FLEX ON MSI, by Sprout, page 27. 
WINDEX: 6809 DRIVER, PERC0M board, by Rushing, page 
28. SPHERE BASIC, by Johnson, page 30. REFERRED 
ARTICLES, editorial by Don Williams Sr, Publisher, page 
33. PRINT. SYS FOR FFL PRINTERS, by Stamm, page 34. 

FEBRUARY 1980: 

GIANT SOFTWARE CONTEST, update, page 8. 1979 68 MICRO 
JOURNAL INDEX, by Schreler, page 9. JBI 1024/CT-64 HI 
SPEED BOARD, a review, page 14. PERC0M PR0T0 BDARDS, 
a review, page 14. MICRO-TIME RT CLOCK, a review, page 
13. CORES, JBUG AND MINIBUG II - MEK6800S2, by 
Peterman, page 16. 6801/6803/6809 TO SWTPC MP-A2 CPU 
BOARD, by Pentecost, page 17. B00KEEPING (Disk and 
Tape), by Stock, page 19. A DATA ENCRYPTION FOR 6800, 
by Elbert and Lacour, page 29. 

MARCH 1980: 

MULTI-USER ED SYSTEM, by Gerhold and Khertaty, page 8. 
BOOKEEPING - Part 2, by Stock, page 10. DUMPFILE and 
DUMPCMDS, by Plgford, page 15. SWTPC TO PD-I I, PD-I I 
TO SWTPC, page 2 2. TRAP (FLEX"), by Johnson, page 23. 
TSC RANDOM FILES, by Schreler, page 23. TAPE 
LABELING, by Looney, page 26. CASSETTE BASIC K (AAA), 
reader review, page 28. WEST COAST COMPUTER FAIRE, 
page 29. 



16 _ 



APRIL 1980: „. „ 

SPLM A LANGUAGE, by Puckett, Page 8. BASIC UTILITIES, a 
review, page II. DATA ENCRYPTION, by LaCour and 
Elbert, page 13. BOOKEEPING - Part 3, by Stock, page 
18. DISK MODS, by Kylllngstad, page 21. 6800 and 6809, by 
Alexander, page 23. SSB DOS 68.5 PATCH, by Alford, 
page 23. BIT BUCKET, numerous small articles and some 
not so small, page 29. TRIM (BASIC), by Mosely, page 36. 

MAY 1980: 

SWTPC MP-09 CPU CARD, by Clark, page 8. MPl 51/52 DISK 
DRIVES, by Pass, page 8. A HOBBYIST SPEAKS (Tape), by 
Llbby, page 9, SSB DOS - Ver. 5.1, by Puckett, age 10. 
MINIDISK* DOS, a review, page 11. BASIC UTILITY 
PACKAGE, by Puckett, page 14. STUFF FOR 680B, by 
Jones, page 16. BCD MULTIPLY, by Visher, page 19. 
MEK-02 to S50 BUS, by Phelps, page 21. BOOKEEPING 
(Final?), by Stock, page 28. BIT BUCKET, page 30. 

JUNE 1980: 

COMPUTER SHOWS, editorial. Page 8. A FAIRE TALE, by 
The Dons (GIM1X), page 9. TSC DIAGNOSTICS, a review, 
page 11. NOTES: BUSINESS PROGRAMMING, by Cagle, age 

12. FLEX USER NOTES, by Anderson (monthly column), page 

20. BIT BUCKET, page 26. SWTPC PWR S PPLY UPGRADE, 
by Gore, page 27. BUSINESS PRGS (Holding), staff, page 
27. TWO FOR ONE, by Downes, page 29. TSC NEWDISK FIX, 
by Stamm, page 30. D TOWERS-BASIC, by Deal, page 31. 
SECTORS (FLEX), by Knight, page 33. 

JULY 1980: 

TRAPDOOR FUNCTION - ENCRYPTION, by Elbert and 
Enzlan, page 8. JPC OVERVIEW, a review, page 15. FLEX 
USER NOTES, by Anderson, page 17. PATCH SWTPC BASIC 
Ver 3 TO DISK, by Cagle, page 21. BIT BUCKET, page 26. 

AUGUST 1980: 

NEW PRODUCTS - RUMORS, staff, page B. READTEST, a 

review, page 10. FLEX USER NOTES, by Anderson, page 

13. ANOTHER FFP ROUTINE, by Jordon, page 18. 
DOCUMENT (BASIC), by Cagle, page 19. 
C0MM-PR0G-M0DEM, by Looney, page 19. PASS PARMS 
FLEX-BASIC, by Hogg, page 20. FAST AD CONVERTER, by 
Zlmmer, page 21. JPC PROG CLOCK KIT, a review, page 
22. BIT BUCKET, page 26. TSC BASIC TO PERC0M, by 
Streck and Zlmmer, page 28. SETV-SH0WV (SSB), by 
Johnson, page 29, 

SEPTEMBER 1980: 

WARRANTIES, editorial, page 10. VC-256 VIDEO GRAPHICS, 
by Hanon, page 10. FLEX USER NOTES, by Anderson, page 
II. SOFTWARE DYNAMICS COMPILER, by Jordon, page 16. 
BIT BUCKET, page 20. FIX ZERO SECTORS (FLEX), by Hart, 
page 22. OS9-BASIC09, by Harmon, page 26. TAPE AND 
THE HOBBYIST, by Llbby, page 27. 

OCTOBER 1980: 

FLEX USER NOTES, by Anderson, page 10. A BATTERY 
BACKUP CLOCK BOARD, a review, page 12. UCSD" PASCAL, 
by Puckett, page 13. BUSINESS PROGRAMMING, by Cagle, 
page 17. STYLOGRAPH W/P SYSTEM, by Pomerantz, page 
19. POSITION INDEPENDENT CODE (6800), by Boyd, page 

21. M0RSRX (MORSE CODE RECEIVING), by Mayhugh, page 
24. HARDWARE HICCUP-MP-A2 , by Gass, page 30. 
DMAF-l/DMAF-2 ON 6800, by Gass, page 31. SOFTWARE 
MODS TO SWTBUG", by Hall, page 32. BIT BUCKET, page 
34. INTERFACING THE BITPAD, by Taaffe, page 38. 

NOVEMBER 1980: 

PHILLY SHOW, staff, page 10. RUMORS, staff, page 14. 
DIXIE, review, page 14. CONTEST NOTES, staff, page 16. 
FLEX USER NOTES, by Anderson, page 17. HUMBUG - 
MONITOR, review by Puckett, page 23. TRS80C" - MC6883, 
staff, page 25. RMS dbms, review by Kherlaty, Dane 30. 
STUDENT GRADE (BASIC), by Petersen, page 3T. BIT 
BUCKET, by all of us, page 34. FULL SCREEN DISPLAY, by 
Pass, page 35. TRANSFER 6600-6809, by Grostlck. paqe 
37. V0LSET KSB), by Goadby, page 38. 

DECEMBER 1980s 

RUMORS, staff, page 8. COMPUTER SYS DEV PGMS, by 

. '68' Micro Journal 



Wommack, page 8. MICROWARE 0S9, by Kaplan, page 9. TSC 
UNIFLEX, by Shirk. pagelO. FLEX USER NOTES, by 
Anderson, page 13. WINNERS - Software Contest, page 
15. SAVE THAT SWTPC MPA CPU, by Caudell, page 16. 
TRS80 TO S50 BUS, by Mayhugh, page 18. BIT BUCKET, 
page 22. F&D 5-8 DISK CONTROLLER, review, page 30. 
CLASSIFIED, page 31. HELP, page 32. 

Please note that In 1he monthly column 'BIT BUCKET 1 
appears, for the year, hundreds of small and not so 
small articles of special Interest to most 68XX users. 
Most of these would comprise a full article In some 
magazines, but because they came to us as letters, 
etc., wllh listing we decided to place all the hints and 
kinks, fixes, suggestions on Improving hardware and 
software and other valuable subjects In this one 
grouping. By appearing In BIT BUCKET In no way demeans 
an article or It's value. In fact, most all readers feel 
1ttat some of the most valuable Information published, 
appeared In BIT BUCKET. 

radio shack COLOR 



The first piece of software (canned) we have 
received for the TRS-80C* Is a ROM pak titled chess. 
The title flashed to the screen Is that It Is 
'Mlcrochess" version 2.0, by Peter Jennings. Also you 
are Informed It Is Copyrighted 1980 by Personal 
Software, Inc. On firing It up on one of our lab TRS80C" 
I found that Indeed It did display a chess board, In vivid 
color, with recognizable chess pieces. The graphics are 
good and 1he usa of color makes It Interesting. So right 
Into a game, I thought. However, at this point Interest 
waned. 

Nice graphics It's got, a good game, not so hot! 
Moves may be made from the keyboard or Joysticks, ttiat 
Is If you have 1hem. It has 8 levels of play. Supposedly 
from 1 to 8 with the dlfflcullty factor going upward. 
Level 8 plays nearly as poorly as level one. It Just 
takes more time doing It. In level one 1he skill level Is 
about on a par with playing chess with a chimp, a slightly 
retarded one at that. The Instruction book Indicates 
that at level 8 It looks ahead three moves. In chessese 
that would signify 6 ply. A 6 ply chess game should should 
be capable of a game on the order of 1,000 to 1,400, 
rating (Intermediate level). It don'tl I really didn't 
expect It to play championship chess, but I did expect 
something better that what It has done so far. Some 
plays are apparently chosen by a 'random' move flag. 
Some time I felt that they all were. It seems to have a 
continuing 'death wish'. After a few gomes(?) I don't 
honestly know If I was more sorry for the poor game or 
Just becoming more and more embarrassed by It's foolish 
antics. 

It starts off fairly well (first couple moves) and 
from there on It gets worse and worse. No matter what 
1he level. It seems to play some sort of 'point' game 
wHh no regard for board position (either side) or total 
points won by edher side (It wins few from a player wltti 
any level of experience!. Under some circumstances, 
haven't tried to figure what they all are, when It (or 
you) gets Into what looks like trouble, It Just gives up, 
erases the board and sets up for a new game. This 
seems to be Hie smartest move It has. Also It has no 
regard for a pawn on It's way to being promoted to a 
queen. It will If at all possible spend all It's time 
checking the king If possible, with no regard to other 
apparent useful moves. Despite all this, averone In the 
office plays It every chance they get. The fine graphics 
and Joystick operations Just make It plain fun. Also I 
must admit that I am biased when it comes to computer 
chess. * I know and expect good play, having a good 
version of Sargon 2.5 which does quite well considering 
ft uses a 6502 (pardon me). 



For a rank beginner It might be ok, for 
starters, but after a short while It leaves something 
to be desired. Needless to say I expect something 
better from a company like Tandyl 

In all fairness It should be noted that this 
version (Mlcrochess) was one of the first chess games 
to run on small computers. It's best point always was 
that It ran In a small amount of RAM, On the KIM" It runs 
In less 1han IK of RAM. There Is no excuse for this 
version, as the TRS80C" has more RAM available. Maybe 
It was a hurry-up project, these we have all seen 
before, from a lot of vendors. Maybe soon someone will 
offer a good game of chess for this machine. There 
certainly are quite a few floating around. * As stated In 
an earlier Issue of 68 Micro Journal I mentioned as to 
how the 6809 Is Ideal as a chess playing CPU. It's 
excellent stack capabilities make It a natural. Strange 
some of the other chess game manufacturers have not 
wised up. If you are still with me, listed below are the 
commands per the book: 



C - Choose or change colors. 

L - Level choice. 

J - Joystick control toggles on or off. 

ENTER - Moves a piece. 

X - Exchanges sides. 

P - Force It to make next move. 

T - Take back a move. 

BREAK - Take back a move - also stops demo game. 

A - To adjust a piece position. 
E - Adds or changes a piece. 
SHIFT C - Clears the board. 
SHIFT R - Resign or restart. 
SHIFT - Run a demo game (It plays Itself). 
UP ARROW, DOWN ARROW, LEFT ARROW, RIGHT ARROW 
Moves the position pointer. 



Nowhere does the Instruction book claim It 
plays a good game. It Is hoped that the next offering 
along 1hls line will! 

Now for some good points. The TRS80C" can be 
easily upgraded to 16K by the changing of two Jumpers 
from 1tie 4K to 16K positions, on the circuit board, and 
1he swapping of the 4K RAM chips for 41 16 dynamic RAM 
chips. Thats all there Is to Itl As stated earlier It Is 
fun for the not" too serious chess fiend. 

The tape save and load speed of 1500 baud Is an 
Improvement. However, we found that the recorders we 
had used with other machines, would not work very well 
with the TRS80C*. So after purchasing another tapa 
recorder, the one recommended by Tandy, we 
experienced little problem wHh the tape operation. 

In the 'RUMORS' column I will try to keep you 
Informed of what Is becoming available for this machine. 
I receive a lot of mall, from all over the world, asking If 
we are going to support the TRS80C". The answer Is that 
we will support It to the extend that Is has a 6809 CPU. 
After all that Is what we (68 Micro Journal) are all 
about. Even had a call from a reader and article 
contributor Informing me that he was nearly complete 
on a project that expands his 80C to a full 3 2K RAM, 
support bus (talk to 1he outside world), disk Interface 
and patch of f the more popular 'Standard S50 bus 

disk operating system. 

* You might note In my references to the S50 
bus I have begin to preface It with 'Standard'. I get 
calls dally from potential users wanting Information 
concerning the 68XX series, running on a 'standard' bus 
or backplane. It's about time that we all realize, and 
refer to it accordingly, 1hat the 50 pin bus most of us 
hang our boards on Is the 'Standard'. 



'68' Micro Journal 



-17 



THE MC6809- 
Processor for the 80s 



TIM AHEHN & JACK BROMTf 

Applications Engineers 

Motorola Semiconductor Products, Inc. 

3501 Ed Bluesteln Blvd. 

Austin, Texas 78721 



The M6809 microprocessor unit (MPU) 
Is the third generation addition to the 
M6800 family of microprocessors. The 
MC6809, Introduced In late 1978. was 
designed by a highly trained team of 
over 100 people. It has the major 
architectural features required to make 
the M6809 the Ideal choice for high 
level language (HLL) execution or 
standard controller applications. 

The MC6800, originally Introduced In 
1974, was designed primarily to replace 
discrete logic, consequently Its data 
manipulation capabilities were somewhat 
Halted. 

The MC68ATX MPU was the second 
generation member of the M6800 family. 
In addition to serving as a stand alone 
MPU, the MC68ATX Is the CPU used In the 
MC6801 family of processors. It 
enlarged the M6800 Instruction set with 
the 17 new or modified Instructions 
listed below, while retaining object 
code compatablllty. Another key feature 
allows concatenation of the A and B 
accumulators to form a 16-blt wide 
double accumulator. 

ABX Add B to X 

ADDD Add Double 

ASLD Shift Left Double 

BHS Branch If Higher or Same 

BLO Branch If Lower 

BRN Branch Never 

LDD Load Double 

LSL Logical Shift Left 

LSLA Logical Shift Left A 

LSLB Logical Shift Left B 

LSLD Logical Shift Left Double 

LSRD Logical Shift Right Double 

MUL Multiply 

PSHX Push X 

PULX Pull X 

STD Store Double 

SUBD Subtract Double 

The MC68ATX also has an additional 
IRQ interrupt Input, IRQ2. Timings for 
key instructions were also reduced to 
optimize execution time. In fact, the 
MC68ATX executing a piece of typical 
MC6800 code actually reduces execution 
time by an average of 20X1 

The M6809 design team benefited from 
the experience of the previous 8-blt MPU 
designs. Since the MC68000 was being 
designed concurrently with the MC6809, 
separate design teams were employed for 
each device. Because of this, the M6809 
designers were allowed to focus on 
problems unique to 8-bit MPUs rather 
than compromise the 8-blt design to 
accomodate 16-bit. requirements. This 
ability to concentrate solely on 8-bit 
requirements led to the major hardware 
and software innovations which qualify 
the M6809 as the beat 8-blt MPU I 

There are two versions of the M6809 
available today: the MC6809. with an 
on-board oscillator; and the MC6809E, 



requiring an external clock generator. 
Both versions are available in three bus 
speed ranges - 1 Mhz, 1.5 Mhz, and 2 
Khz. 

Note: Throughout this article, the term 
M6809 will be used as a generic 
reference. The two versions will be 
differentiated by part numbers: MC6809 
refers to the on-chip oscillator 
version, while the MC6809E refers to the 
version which requires an external clock 
generator. 

Block diagrams for both versions, shown 
in Figure 1 , reveal that the primary 
differences are in the Bus Control and 
Timing circuits. 

Block Diagrams 




HC6809 




18 



MC6809E 

Figure 1 

The MC6809E design started after first 
silicon was available for the MC6809. 

'68' Micro Journal 



The chip layout remained exactly the 
sane, but the Bus Control and Timing 
Circuits of the MC6809 were removed and 
replaced with the circuits necessary for 
the MC6809E. The common M6809 CPU 
kernel consists of the register set 
shown in Figure 2, an ALU, Instruction 
Register, Interrupt Logic, Address and 
Data bus logic and buffers. 

Register Set 



■ 




D 




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I * w ftiv*ir 


' 


O m UW Sva toPrtUT 


f - !■»— i tuck *a*»r 




1 


K 






1 


1 







1 


<* i 


1 


& 


I'l'h 


[.M'Md 



Figure 2 

The register set of the M6809 is a 
superset of Motorola's existing 8-bit 
MPU's. Three registers were added to 
the register set of the original MC6800 

a Direct Page Register, a User Stack 
Pointer, and a second Index register. 
There are two 8-bit accumulator 
registers - the A & B registers which 
are used for data manipulation and serve 
as holding registers for arithmetic 
calculations. The M6809 has many 16-bit 
type arithmetic operands including 
shifts, loads, stores, and an 8x8 
multiply. The 16-bit shift, load and 
store operations use both accumulators - 
with the A register treated as the most 
significant byte. When the A and B 
register are concatenated, they are 
refered to as the D register. 

The Direct Page Register (DP) is one 
of the new registers. The contents of 
this register form the high order byte 
of the address bus during instructions 
utilizing the Direct Addressing mode. 
This register may be changed to allow 
direct addressing anywhere In the 64k 
memory map as opposed to the MC6800 
which only allowed direct addressing in 
the first 256 bytes of the memory map. 
Direct addressing uses the immediate 
byte of the instruction as a one-byte 
pointer into a single 256-byte "page" of 
memory. This shortens instruction 
execution time as the Most Significant 
Byte (MSB) is furnished by the Direct 
Page Register. MC6800 compatability is 
ensured, as a Reset clears the Direct 
Page Register. 

The M6809 has four 16-bit pointer 
registers available to the user. The U 
and S registers support stack oriented 
instructions such as PSH and PUL. The S 
register is used as the hardware stack 
pointer to support interrupts and 
subroutine calls. The U register gives 

'68' Micro Journal 



the designer the capability of 
maintaining an independent stack. The 
other two registers, X and Y, are 
registers intended primarily for use as 
Index Registers, although special 
indexing modes allow them to be used to 
maintain additional stack areas. All 
four pointer registers may be used as 
Index registers allowing Index 
Addressing, Indirect Addressing or 
Indexed Indirect Addressing. These 
pointer register capabilities allow the 
M6809 to function efficently as a stack 
processor, allowing the MPU to support 
high level languages and modular 
programming techniques . 

The MPU's program counter, while 
primarily utilized by the processor to 
address the next instruction to be 
executed, may be used like an index 
register, thus allowing addressing 
relative to the Program Counter. 

The Condition Code Register defines 
the state of the MPU such that 
conditional branch instructions may be 
used. The condition code register also 
allows masking of certain interrupts. 

This set of registers is manipulated 
with a set of 59 instructions. 1464 
different opcodes are available to the 
programmer if all modes of the 
instructions are considered. However, 
only the 59 mnemonics must be remembered 
when using the Macro Assembler as it 
picks the applicable opcodes. 

Software costs are rising so fast 
that in many systems, the hardware costs 
are insignificant. The M6809 was 
designed for ease of software 
development. Very effcient Position 
Independent Code (PIC) may be written 
using the capabilities of the M6809. 
The program counter may be used as a 
pointer to provide offsets within the 
program. For example: When a piece of 
PIC is executed, the stack addresses, 
peripherial addresses, and other 
addresses may be specified as offsets 
from the current PC address. Other key 
factors in effective position 
independent code writing are the use of 
long and short relative branch 
instruction and the Load Effective 
Address instruction. The relative 
branch instructions allow Program 
Counter Relative branching. When an 
8-bit offset is used, control may be 
transferred anywhere 
area. A 16-bit offset 
of control anywhere 
address space. The 
examples of the 
instruction. 



within a 256 byte 

allows transfer 

in the entire 64k 

following are 

relative branch 



DECA Decrement A Accumulator 
BEQ CAT If A - then goto CAT 

(CAT is within +/- 128 

bytes) 

INCA Increment A Accumulator 
LBEQ BOWSER If A - then goto BOWSER 
(BOWSER is within +/- 
32,768 bytes) 
The Load Effective Address (LEA) 
instructions work by calculating the 
effective address of an indexed 
instruction and storing it in the 
specified pointer register. This allows 
19 



the designer to utilize all the internal 
addressing hardware associated with the 
MPU. Below are some examples of the LEA 
instructions. With these key 
instructions, a software designer may 
generate efficient Position Independent 
Code. 



Instruction 




Operation 


LEAX 10, X 




X + 10 --> X 


LEAY A,Y 




Y + A --> Y 


LEAX D.Y 




Y + D --> X 


LEAU -10, U 




U - 10 --> u 


LEAX TABLE, 


PCR 


See text 



Note how the registers may be 
incremented or decremented using the LEA 
instructions. In addition, registers 
may be used as offsets as shown above. 
The Program Counter may be used as a 
pointer register with 8 or 16-bit signed 
offsets. As in Relative Addressing, the 
offset is added to the current PC to 
create the Effective Address. The last 
example calculates the offset of TABLE 
and adds it to the current value of the 
PC. This value is then placed Into the 
X register. Tables related to a 
particular routine will maintain the 
sane relationship after the routine is 
moved, since addresses are calculated 
when the code is executed. 

As seen by the hardware designer, the 
H6809 has sixteen address lines, eight 
data lines, three interrupt inputs, bus 
control and timing signals. The bus 
control and timing signals are different 
for each version of the M6809 MPUs . 

Common Bus Control signals in the two 
different M6809 versions are HALT, R/W, 
BA, and BS. HALT is used to remove the 
M6809 MPU from the bus to allow DMA or 
multl-procesor operations. R/W tells 
the system whether the MPU is doing a 
read or a write operation. BA and BS 
allow the system to monitor the MPU 
operation states. 

Six signals are unique to the MC6809 
Bus Control and Timing circuits. All 
timing is generated by a parallel 
resonant crystal connected to the Extal 
and XTAL pins. In addition to the 
crystal, two additional capacitors (27 
pf with A MHz crystal) are required to 
prevent harmonic oscillations. The 
crystal oscillator feeds a divider 
network which produces two system 
clocks, E and Q, which run at one fourth 
the crystal frequency. E is the 
standard M6800 bus timing signal also 
referred to as 02. Q is a clock which 
leads E by one quarter bus cycle. The 
operation of E and Q is shown in Figure 
3. 

Bus Timing Signals 



r 



■\_ 



The rising edge of Q may be used by 
the system as an address valid strobe, 
and the falling edge may be used as a 
data valid strobe on a write cycle. The 
falling edge of E is used by the MPU to 
latch data during read cycles. M6800 
perlpherlals also use this falling edge 
to latch data from the MPU during write 
cycles. E and Q provide multiple clock 
edges which can be useful in the 
generation of RAS and CAS signals for 
dynamic RAM. 

If slow speed memories are to be 
Incorporated in the system, the clocks 
may be stretched up to 10 microseconds 
by pulling MRDY low. This signal will 
stretch E high and Q low until released. 

DMA/BREQ is an active low input which 
allows another bus master i.e. DMA 
controller, RAM refresh controller, or 
co-processor to acquire the buses. 

The MC6809E has six multiprocessor 
control and timing signals. Bus timing 
for the MC6809E is also controlled by E 
and Q except that they are inputs from 
an external clock generator. Q is a TTL 
compatible input whereas E is a MOS 
level type input. The MOS level input 
circuitry minimizes the skew between the 

external clock generator and the 
internal MPU circuits. Notice that E 
may be driven with a pullup resistor. 
Figure <t shows a sample clock generator. 

Sample Clock Cenerator 



•Sh — s — I w 

rl — F~*i — — F*l — r~ *"" 



p* SH — ■ O 



20 



Figure 3 



Figure A 

Three State Control (TSC) allows the 
designer to control the Addresses, Data 
bus, and R/W line on a cycle-by-cycle 
basis, whereas HALT can only stop after 
execution of an instruction. 

AVMA is the Advanced Valid Memory 
Access signal indicating that the MPU 
will use the bus during the next cycle. 
AVMA goes low during HALT or SYNC 
states to guarantee the systems' data 
integrity. 

The BUSY output provides the 
indivisible memory operation required 
for a "test-and-set" operation. 
Operations of this type are required for 
efficient multiprocessor support on a 
common bus . 

LIC indicates that the first byte of 
an opcode will be latched at the end of 
the preaent bus cycle. 

This choice of MPUs allows the 
designer to choose the optimum MPU 
version to meet his system requirements. 
Several examples demonstrate these 
features. For example - an onboard 
oscillator with external crystal 
provides all system clocks. For slower 
ROMS, MRDY may be used to extend access 
times. A schmidt trigger reset circuit 
allows the use of minimal external 
components. A resistor/capacitor 

'68' Micro Journal 



combination is all that is required for 
a power-on Reset circuit. Add a Reset 
switch, and the installation is 
complete. 

One of the nicest system aspects is 
that of bus loading. Many times simple 
systems have become less simple due to 
minimal CPU loading characteristics. 
The M6809 was made with the circuit 
rfpR loner in mind. All signal lines 
(clocks, address, data, and control 
lines) are supplied with enough drive 
for 4 LS TTL loads. 

As stated before, the M6809 has 
provisions for three separate levels of 
interrupts. One of which is a 
Non-Maskable Interrupt (NMI). which 
cannot be masked under software control. 
The NMI is useful in power-down 
situations, and real-time interrupt 
servicing. The other two interrupts are 
maskable under software control. One is 
"faster" than the other in that a 
response to a Fast Interrupt Request 
(FIRQ) , stacks only the Condition Code 
register and the Program Counter. As 
can be seen, the M6809 is well suited 
for interrupt operation. Some popular 
microprocessors take even more time to 
recognize an interrupt than it takes the 
M6809 to recognize and stack its entire 
register complement! Three levels of 
software interrupts are also provided. 

The M6809 provides the user with the 
capability of vectoring by device. This 
is accomplished by a control line which 
signifies Interrupt Acknowledge (IACK). 
When this line goes true, it signifies 
that the next two bus cycles will be a 
vector fetch, and that, if desired, the 
user may supply his own vectors at this 
time. During this vector fetching, the 
user must turn off the highest page ROM, 
lest the vectors be read from it. The 
interrupt vectors and their addresses 
are listed below. 



RESET 


FFFE 


NMI 


FFFC 


SWI 


FFFA 


IRQ 


FFFfl 


FIR'J 


FFF6 


SWI2 


FFFA 


SWI3 


FFF2 


RESERVED 


FFFO 



Interrupt Vectors 

The control line from which IACK is 
derived is actually one of a full set of 
4 MPU states. They are as follows: 



BA 


BS 


MPU STATE 








NORMAL (RUNNING) 





1 


SYNC ACKNOWLEDGE 


1 





INTERRUPT ACKNOWLEDGE 


1 


1 


HALT OR BUS GRANT 



As can be seen, the two control lines 
Bus Available (BA), and Bus Status 
(BS) may be decoded to provide the user 
with the internal state of the M6809. 
The other two states which have not been 
mentioned will be discussed now. 

Sync Acknowledge: This signal is in 
response to the SYNC software command 
which allows hardware synchronization to 
a software program. As the program 

'68' Micro Journal 



executes the SYNC instruction, all 
program execution stops and waits for a 
hardware interrupt. If an interrupt 
occurs, and its associated mask bit is 
set, then the program will continue 
execution. If the mask is clear, the 
program will fetch the interrupt vector 
and service the interrupt before 
continuing on in the program. Of 
course, the NMI can not be masked, and 
will be serviced before falling through 
the SYNC command. This instruction is 
similiar to the old Wait for Interrupt 
(WAI) instruction on the MC6800, but 
with obvious improvements. 

Halt/Bus Grant: This condition 
exists when the processor has entered a 
halt condition via a pulling low of the 
HALT or DMA/BREQ line. As shown, these 
hardware properties are well suited for 
an advanced software machine such as the 
M6809. 

The M6809 as a Controller 

The MC6809 easily adapts to a 
controller- type environment by using the 
multitude of M6800 series of 
peripherials which are totally 
compatible. Because the M6809 converses 
with peripherials in an efficient 
memory-mapped configuration, no special 
I/O instructions are required, thus 
keeping the instruction set more regular 
and consistant. Figure 5 an example of 
how an MC6809 may be placed in a typical 
controller application. 

I_ l_L 



T" 






Figure 5 

This application is shown using a 
total of 3 parts - the MC6809, a MC68A6, 
and a HCM6810 or some other type of RAM. 

The MC6846 contains two kilobytes of 
mask-programmed ROM, an 8-bit parallel 
I/O port, and a 16-bit timer. Since 
many controller applications require 
aeveral variations with different 
programs, the cost of mask- programmed 
ROMS may be too high to be Justified. 
Figure 6 shows a system in which the 
MC6809 uses standard EPROMS for program 
storage. Although more parts are 
required, a greater degree of system 
flexibility may be attained through this 
design than by using a single-chip 
microcomputer such as the M6801 or M6805 
family of MPUs . 

The basic controller can be 
embellished by the addition of any of 
the many available M6800 peripherials. 
The question is, where does a controller 
end, and a smart system begin? Of 
course, all controllers are systems, 
but, Just for the sake of arguement, we 
21 



will call a system one which has 
extended interaction with humans, such 
as would be required in a personal 
computer or small business system. 

The Expanded System 

Several companies have chosen to 
implement the M6809 in products whose 
end functions range from low cost "color 
computers", to extended personal 
computers, and on to even higher 
sophisticated business systems. The low 
coat systems are basically one step up 
from a controller design, with a minimal 
number of "bells and whistles", while 
both the personal computer and small 
business machines have the capbility of 

freater expansion e.g. more memory - > 
00k bytes with memory management unit 
(MMU) extensions, and provisions for 
higher level languages such as Pascal 
and BASIC09. BASIC09 is a sophisticated 

rrograrorr.ing language system that is a 
cap in state-of-the-art microcomputer 
system software. Its many advanced 
features are aimed toward efficient, 
structured software development and 
testing. BASIC09 is the result of an 
intensive, two-year development project, 
and is quite possibly the most 
sophisticated general-purpose 

microcomputer program ever written. 

BASIC09 may use multiple, independent 
named procedures in memory 
simultaneously which are re-entrant, 
position independent and ROMable. 
Procedures have local variables, are 
called by name and pass parameters to 
others. It includes enhanced I/O 
capabilities, and has compiler 
performance ; an integrated three-pass 
compiler and interpreter design. In 
addition to its powerful built-in data 
structures, BASIC09 allows 
user-definable "record-like" structures 
a powerful Pascal- like feature. 
Included are the full complement of math 
and transcendental functions, and a 
complete editor-debugger. 

In addition to software developed 
with Motorola, one software company has 
implemented an operating system for the 
M6809 which has almost as much power as 
the UNIX operating system developed by 
Bell Labs. Its syntax and operation 
parallel that of UNIX. These personal 
computers can be enhanced to provide the 
user with hardware and software 
development systems whose price had 
previously been too high for other than 
large companies. These systems are now 
reasonably priced. and any serious 
Id easily 



hobbyist coulc 



Ly justify one. 



Larger. 



and Beyond 



oeen expanded to 2 megabytes with 
built-in provisions for multi-user and 
multi-tasking environments. The 
principal function of the MC6829 Memory 
Management unit is to expand the address 
apace of the M6809 from 64k bytes to a 
maximum of 2 Megabytes. Each MMU is 
capable of handling four different 
concurrent tasks, including DMA. The 
MMU can also protect the address space 
of one task from modification by another 
task. Memory address expansion is 
accomplished by applying the upper five 
address lines of the processor A11-A15 
along with the contents of a five-bit 




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With the advent of the MC6809E 
(external clock version), larger 
nultl-processor systems have become 
easier to design as shown in Figure 6. 
Because all clocks are externally 
generated, synchronization to 
perlpherlals such as CRT controllers and 
other MPUs have become a snap to 
implement. 

With the new MC6829 Memory Management 
Unit (MMU), the M6809's memory map has 



ICXMIO 


in 


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HW1H 


11 


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22 



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Fiaure 6 
task register to an internal high-speed 
mapping RAM. The MMU output consists of 
ten physical address lines (PA11 
PA20), which, when combined with the 
eleven lower address lines of the 
processor (A0 - A10) forms a physical 
address space of 2 Mbytes. Each task is 
assignee memory in Increments of 2k 
bytes up to a total of 64k bytes. In 
this manner, the address spaces of 
different tasks can be kept separate 
from one another. See Figure 7. 

The resulting simplification of the 
address apace programming model will 
Increase the software reliability of a 
complex microprocessor system. 

Another significant addition to the 
M6809's complement of support chips is 
the MC6839 Floating Point Rom. This ROM 
is totally position independent - it can 
be placed anywhere in the memory map. 

The MC6839 PR Implements the 
Floating Point Standards currently 
proposed by the IEEE. No absolute RAM 
is required ss all operands are carried 
in registers or on the stack. This 
allows re-entrant code and provides the 
support required by high level languages 
such as Pascal. Single, double, and 
double extended formats are provided 
allowing numbers ranging to 64 digits 
with T6 digit exponents . The FPR 
supports the operations listed in the 
following table. 

'68' Micro Journal 



Add 

Subtract 

Multiply 

Divide 

Remainder 

Square Root 

Integer Part 

Negate 

Compare 

Convert Integer to Floating Point 

Convert Binary to Decimal 

The MC6839 Floating Point Rom 

represents Motorola's first entry into 

the Standard Product Rom (SPR) 
marketplace. 

SPRs will contain modular position 
independent code, thus freeing designers 
from the need to generate individual 
sets of common software routines. This 
market has come of age because of the 
ease of writing software which is 

totally transportable. This 
transportability is due to Position 
Indepedent Code which can be effectively 
and easily written for the M6809 and 
M68000 families of processors. 

The MC6842 Serial Direct Memory 
Access Processor (SOMA) is but another 



entry into the M6800-M6809 bus 
compatible peripherial market. The 
MC6842 provides a high speed serial link 
between microprocessors or intelligent 
controllers in distributed processing 
systems. Using IBM's Synchronous Data 
Link Control (SDLC) protocol, the MC6842 
is capable of handling multidrop, 
point-to-point, or loop configurations. 
Many HDLC protocol features are also 
supported. 

The SDMA processor accepts commands 
from the local microprocessor to either 
transfer data or issue link-level 
commands. The SDMA issues and responds 
to most link- level commands, ensures 
data integrity and validation, and 
handles some error recovery. 



Considering all available 
microprocessors, the M6809 family 
represents a consistant choice of 8-bit 
micros in all segments of the 
representative markets i.e. controller 
environments, small business systems, 
and the ever-present home computer 
market. 



tOOICAl TO PHVSCAt ADDRESS MAPfttG OUACLES 



TM Logul AM<1 



Pnnc* Antrim 



TtUO 
10 S) 



T«f» 1 
(0MA> 





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— *— ■ . * 




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Figure 7 



DYNAMITE 



I've recently had the pleasure of using 
Dynamite, a disassembler from Computer Systems 
Center, 13461 Olive Blvd., Chesterfield MO 63017. 
Dynamite was written by Philip Lucldo. Philip Is obviously 
familiar with FLEX. He has made using his 



ve ry 



' — •i •— -- - — — ■— a 

disassembler as nearly as possible like using the 
assembler. One specifies options by appending '*• 
followed by a series of single letter option specifiers. 
I for one, appreciate being able to specify everything 



'68' Micro Journal 



For a run In the command line. I don't like to play 
question and answer, particularly If the program Is going 
to run a while and then ask me for more Input. That way, 
1 can't go get a bottle of Vernor's (ginger ale) while 
the program Is running. Dynamite allows the user to set 
things up so It can run unattended. 

23 



WE HAVE A 6809 FOR YOU 



POWER SUPPLY 

Modular plug-in construction with computer grade 
filters and a 25 AMP rectifier bridge. Blower 
fan is standard equipment. All con- 
nections to the power line 
are beneath the 
safety shield. 



1^. 



INTERFACE 



Convenient serial or parallel I/O cards have DB 25 
connectors mounted directly on the circuit 
^ board. Up to 16 interface devices may 

^^t be installed on the address decoded 

J^ I/O bus. Programming strips are 

provided for inputand out- 
put baud rate selection 
on each port. All 
outputs are 
fully buf- 
fered. 




CABINET 



Rugged 1/8 inch alloy aluminum 
base plate combined with a solid 1/8 
inch alloy aluminum cover for unsurpassed 
protection. All interior metal is conversion 
coated. The cover is finished with a super tough tex- 
tured epoxy. 



PROCESSOR 

The world's most powerful 

eight-bit processor, the Motorola 

MC6809, plus 2K byte monitor ROM 

that is 2716 EPROM compatible and full 

buffering on all output lines. Built-in multiuser capability, just add 1/0 cards to operate a multi-terminal system. 

MEMORY— You can purchase the computer with either 8K bytes of RAM memory (expandable to 56K), or with the full 
56K. The efficient, cool running dynamic memory used in this system is designed and manufactured for us by "Motorola 
Memory Systems Inc." 

PERIPHERALS— The wide range of peripheral hardware that is supported by the 6809 includes: dot matrix printers (both 
80 and 132 column), IBM Electronic 50 typewriter, daisy wheel printers, 5-inch floppy disk system, 8-inch floppy disk 
systems and a 16 megabyte hard disk. 

SOFTWARE— The amount of software support available for the 6809 is incredible when you consider that it was first 
introduced in June, 1979. In addition to the FLEX9 operating system, we have a Text Editor, Mnemonic Assembler, Debug, 
Sort-Merge, BASIC, Extended BASIC, Multiuser BASIC, FORTRAN, PASCAL and PILOT, 

69/K Computer Kit with 8K bytes of memory $ 495.00 

69/A Assembled Computer with 8K bytes of memory $ 595.00 

69/56 Assembled Computer with 56K bytes of memory $1,595.00 




SOUTHWEST TECHNICAL PRODUCTS CORPORATION 

219 W. RHAPSODY 

SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS 78216 (512) 344-0241 



6809 DISK SYSTEMS 



All disk systems are supplied with our version of FLEX 9, the world 
standard disk' operating system for the 6809. Our systems normally 
operate in double density format, but they are compatible with single 
density, or single sided recording formats. FLEX is supplied with over 
forty utilities, many of which are only available with our systems. 

Our disk systems offer you mass storage at low cost. The cost per thou- 
sand bytes of storage for our various systems is shown in the chart. 
Other 6809 disk systems have costs up to three times greater for the 
same general type drive. 



D-5 Two double sided, double density, 5" disk drives with a total on 
line capacity of 720,000 bytesof data. Includes cabinet, power supply, 
connecting cable and controller. Controller will operate up to four 
drives. This is an ideal disk system for small stand alone word proces- 
sing systems, or for businesses that do not work with large inventories. 

14 x6x 10 -20 lbs $1,295.00 



DT-5 Double track density version of the D-5. The DT-5 uses two 96 
track per inch drives to provide an on line capacity of 1 ,400,000 bytes. 
Includes cabinet, power supply, connecting cable and controller. Con- 
troller will operate up to four drives. This is a disk system with enough 
capacity to include small inventories of up to 1,000 items, plus the 
usual business package of general ledger payroll, etc. 

14x6x 10-20 lbs- $1,695.00 



DMF-2 Double sided, double density, dual eight-inch disk system with 
an on line capacity of 2,400,000 bytes. Our "top of the line" disk 
system features a DMA type controller for fastest possible data trans- 
fers. This drive was designed for larger businesses and multi user in- 
stallations. The DMF-2 will provide the fast operation necessary for 
systems running multiterminals under the UniFLEX operating system. 
Complete with a heavy duty 1/8-inch metal cabinet, power supply, 
connecting cable and controller. The controller will operate up to four 
drives. 

17% x 5 x 21% - 53 lbs $2,495.00 

COS-1 This "Winchester" type hard disk provides both large storage 
capacity and high speed operation. The CDS 1 is the answer for systems 
that must handle large inventories or systems with more than four ter- 
minals. The controller has its own processor and uses DMA data trans- 
fer. 

CDS-1 - 1 15 lb» $4,395.00 



TYPE 


CAPACITY 


COST 


D-5 


720,000 bytes 


$1£0per/K 


DT-5 


1.400.000 bytes 


$1.16per/K 


DMF-2 


2,400,000 bytes 


$1.04 per/ K 


CDS-1 


16,000,000 bytes 


$ .27per/K 




D-5 or DT-6 




OMF2 





SOUTHWEST TECHNICAL PRODUCTS CORPORATION 

219 W. RHAPSODY 

SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS 78216 (512) 3440241 



I've had four disassemblers at this point. The 
first was published In one of "ttte very early Issues of 
Kilobaud. It was a start, but not much more. The same 
could be said of the TSC disassembler. Ed Smith's 
Software Works disassembler was a major Improvement 
over the earlier ones. Ed called If a Source Code 
Generator. The Improvement came In a couple of forms. 
First of all, the Source Code Generator generates 
labels. They are formed as the letter L followed by a 
number. The numbers start at 0001 and Increment by 1, 
being assigned as labels are needed In the program. Ed 
made provision for you to disassemble a program from 
memory to your terminal or printer, or to a disk file. 
When you disassemble to a terminal, you will find areas 
of most programs In which the disassembler gets 
confused and disassembles certain operation codes, (or 
rather what It thinks shot) k) be op-codes) as »»»■"', 
These are such areas as strings, Jump tables, etc. When 
you look at -the disassembled code to the screen you 
decide what type of 'data 1 area you are looking at, and 
Jot down on a scratch pad the address limits of these 
areas. When the disassembler Is run again, you are 
prompted for the limits and types of these areas, and 
you may enter them and run the disassembler again, 
checking to see If the listing now makes more sense. 
This process is repeated until you are satisfied with the 
output, and you may then specify saving the output to a 
disk file that may later be used to assemble the 
program again. 

Dynamite goes a couple of steps beyond this. It 
also needs your help In determining what areas contain 
data. Jump addresses, etc. Dynamite allows you to enter 
these areas limit addresses each time, or to create a 
text file that contains the Information. It will 1hen read 
the text file and use the Information. Dynamite, unlike 
the earlier disassemblers never will give you »••*" for 
an op-code. If all else falls. It will resort to FCB S29 
etc. For this reason, even If the disassembler output 
doesn't make sense, It will always assemble to produce 
■the original program. 

Dynamite runs under FLEX9 with the 6809 
processor, but will disassemble either 6809 or 6800 
code. It Is eminently useful for disassembling 6600 
utilities so you can change the FLEX equates and 
reassemble for your 6809 system. The external 
equates. Is. address references to areas outside of 
the limits of the program, always appear at the 
beginning of the disassembled source, and the equates 
thus generated may be changed very easily. There Is 
one additional feature of Dynamite. It comes with a set 
of data files containing the Equates for normal entry 
points to various operating systems and monitors. To be 
more specific, there Is a file of equates for FLEX2, 
FLEX9, MIN1FLEX, SWTBUG, and SBUG-E. You may use. In 
addition to your command file of data area addresses, 
one of these files, and a label file of your own. Thus as 
you proceed with the disassembly of a program, you can, 
as understanding comes, define meaningful labels and 
create a file of them. You can modify your command file 
to Include new areas of data or strings as they are 
discovered, and eventually arrive at a reasonably 
disassembled file. It Is much easier to edit a small data 
file repeatedly, than to edit a large disk file, and you 
need never prepare a final output source file until you 
are satisfied with the results to your screen. 

Dynamite works from disk file to screen or 
another disk file. It Is never necessary to have the 
program In memory durnlng the process. One of the very 
nice features. Is an option that allows the display of the 
ASCII equivalents of each Instruction In the disassembly 
listing to the CRT. This makes the text strings stick out 
like sore thumbs, and It Is quite easy to determine 
their limits to be entered In the Command file for the 
next pass of the disassembler. 

I was most Impressed by the fact that the 
disassembly to the CRT Is Identical In format and 

26 . 



content to the output of the TSC assembler. In fact, a 
run of the disassembler to the printer Is nearly 
Indistinguishable from a run of the Assembler on the 
source file generated on a disk. The software Is 
entirely compatible with the P.CMD of FLEX for output 
to a printer. It correctly manipulates SWITCH so that 
prompts appear on the CRT and listing goes to the 
p rlnter. 

In summary. Dynamite Is not Just another 
disassembler, but a better approach that Is a major 
Improvement In the capabilities of such software. I must 
give It an excellent rating, and recommend It as the 
best one I have seen to date. 

Dynamite may be ordered from: Computer Systems 
Center, 13461 Oliver Blvd., Chesterfield, M0 63017, 
telephone (314) 576-5020. 

See advertisement this Issue. 

Ron Anderson — — 

zingg for SWTPC 
cassette 

!.» il.JL Hall, Ultraaoblc Trvhm>l*tr, Qua** Hatha!" a Hcapttal . Claatm, 



ibif 



rMull 



CoaaMrelallt auppllad aoflwar* for raaaatt* baa**: ■)■!**■« la mual iy 
tvpptlpd la tba Hbbbbb city tonal racarda4 at V*t burnt ualtu a HIM m 
aarhlat car-Flar *M?h varlaa aerordlbf to rtiathtr binary -|"b or **"Ȥ. 
wrm baltiK raCorSed. a binary "l* la r*pr«**ai »d aa d cpclaa of rraqwaocy 
3400 Hi, valla ■ blaary "O" la r*pr»ni«i aa 4 cjcl»a *f l*0i> Ra. Whan 
data la ratrlarad from to* tap* durlnr p)a r park, i|t« aarfclnt rarrlar la 
dotarcad a*d precaoaad. produclBi a cloca tor data a>i«t|im TM» tall 
clacitaa km of oparalloa la lolaraet to lh« (rttufnC? rarlBliUBa arlalac 
froa lap* apaadl ftaetuit teaa aa tha tap* paaaca lha MajfeaCa *»adl thm 
fl— tllll i» tauaad hp varlatioaa In dHv* winr apapd. allaalb* .Match 
rt-icEian pi*, and it* found , to a rraalar or ]*«••»> t itm , la all iiiih« 



Tk* AC9D raapatta tPiartaea ahtcfc fa tfca oaly oni ©(farad be "outi 
aaataru Tachalcal Product* cu eantiol I** caaaitta rfcordtn Indapaiadaai 1 y 
asd la daatz*a4 to tfia Kaapas ciiy ataadard antes la painfull IT ale* *aaa 
It aoaaa la loading lart* Pr-Qtfraa>e aac» ■■ u *l Haete or a larda Editor 
Aaaaaalar A rttln of at if>gn I va» far ruicr eaaaatta oparatloa bt M 
Clara (1> indlcataa Uial I hire ira > aiaahpr 4' hnrdaara and tofiura eotuiiooa. 
Hsnnt h»*lrj< purchased lha AC50 raaaatta Ivii-rtaed om la raluctant to 
ati.-iri: || fnr aa lHimltW| aoaalbly noo • (arutaro' approach. Tharafnr*. 
■Blh04* nr mrr.HiiK i h* aaaad of oporatlop In a ainplp p t r ■ 1 irht f o r»ard 
•aaaor **rm CoapldtratL it mi Ibeuptii tin for pnuraa <lav*lapa>aa t aad (ha 
loadln of abort iroliui, a ooubliad of tba tiaud rata to POO aotiild ba a 
uaafui Ltanfaani, fapKlillr If oati bI*ib*I M*4apr* nod 1 1 irat In* la naadad, 

Tf- *SIH rv,r»n uitd tu ra, ,irfl ir.O pla*ba*a dm affair! IVbIt i^ubtri 
tba Ma- takaa far rnvrilni or playback ba, »*** a IHATHm "n- r ' ■. v:- 1 t . 
aiacutad. tba * bit blbbir ward at vacfa *a»ad •«»r t bcitnm i» farutlad 
ipto t*n JltCI] fbaraftora, aa aAe-ni Is riv, 1 (a fullar dtacrlpilba at iM 
fg>T*ai |a ilvaa la rafarasco t) . »lallarlv, abau loadtna: from <■», lha 
TUnarr *^ri *°t aaCb •aatpf* ipcaiion la r>raad tram tae *l*r(i rharortPra. 
Tn» radunduc^ fa tba hardaarv itha BUBbar of ejrrlaa uatd to rafnl-d *aeh 
byip aad tbo frpquppCT a' Mtofdiii) aad aoftaar* Eipo ASCII ebar«c-lprp a*r 
Djrtol hhi that pra(rra»» amrh «.* ■ ilk Aajaablvf ar •IbIIbz' alPPd liiu tUi 



ee Micro Journal 



■obm IB iinutu ta load Bad iM ■ van b* *o*i [rtiiiniinr U a ayataa fruk 
Kriiri duriat ua* Tha rtdiaidanrr \n ih» *pfi*ara loadlat tnraat tu >— 
r**jcad by u*ia* * cAMfrcltliif nvnniti* binary l°»*»' *ad lb* itn!i<iu«A> 
or tbla and aodtfifatloaB t* tb* ATM mrduif to o»*r*l* at ■ hn-n-r baud 
Pill AH ci-*iil<l»r*r1 b*In* 
<A) fettwri bodlflpatlna 

Tb* load tlaa cad b* r*due*d uiidi a bleary loader ableb <titpa*«*# 
till (hi praoloualy dBaerlb*4 *BCil foraat. A c««rdil *xaa>p]a I* 
E4. Saltn. Mn«ry loaoar (VM.J.,91 abiah baa bolh a a*v* and ■ load 
ro*tlo* r Whoa aavlm a, proarw* lb* loaAar Eaoarai** * ahort *»*Tnir.» 
fomtltd proara* la AfiCl) at tha b**laataP of (J»* tar* anal than arllaa lo 
tap*, la blaary formal, tba aaiactad *oatl*uoui araa of naaorj, To load 
aocb * tap* tj» atandard s»at»t,» ■f," rout in* it yjif-d, thla )»«■ la* ahnri 
AfCll foraat tad loaoar prndra* *hlth tn 1u.rn aut oval Ic a 1 1 y loada lb* bmir} 
for**! tad, n«f Wbwi ualna; • htnary loadarr th* " r*ad atatua" lojtli* **lteh 
am lb* tf» auat bo a*t to (M "no aoaltlaa Mill bttrr tb* "«- bIkA let tared 
by a "G appaara, It eaa than bm raturoad fo too ctnlri Million to altn* 
tba tap* t» atop buIobbI Lfillr uodtr gmnu coalrnl . 

Ma aupp||i*it, Ed Satlba bin. 1-7 load** la Loratvfl f mn *JC ii'i- 1 E r« ? 
vb(eh La la la* ar*a of awjawry u**d Cor our aaaaofclar or utn Th* flrat 
at** la fo r* local* It t* &# Jw*t MiH *** *»4 of m* crairai to b* 
aand; aaally am wbIbr ta blth* *pma an poor* praaraai aa th* loadvr la 
dlractly ralncalabl*. Th* ...r..*r«« to b* Barad la n,.>, lnad*4 ■;.. and th* 
bisa/v loadar net rtrutln* la u**d to (haaa tb* frofru lo tan* - poaalbtp 
al *W> baud If you dorld* lo |ppl**>*ni th> hardwar* fH»,i. kihuimiI 
balo*. 
(9) Battfaar* tMUlt*! Im 

Tba Kaaan city (onat apart n*a thai a binary "(1** la rapr*a*atad 
by 4 crclaa of I*0O Ma *Mla a blaary "1" la rafraaantad by It eyrlaa of 
34nr Na, thla laltar iT—tumaty U •« 1 1 aaloa tn* un.aar 3 do haodaidtt 
of a ■aaoaabl* «iilllr ca*a*(ta r*eor4*r. tor anaahala la* uppar 1 4b band* Id th 
Of t*a inaj TT*n7 fa R(MM Hi, I fcida lha fra^lMaclatf uivif raa ranlli b* doublad 
lo Ji'lO ana a«/HI Ha rrinr-1 Nfh althnUl fha&rJnr tha rpu.r'llnr fafval . Til* 
la affaetad by altar inn tfa* baud rata to awib on hnih Eh* port 1 .iniirfir* 
card and lb* karboard raaaola. fax- £ eavar.ladca. li la nWaoitad lb* 
■odlfleatloa abovn la »Ir. * la t *p )***«■ i ad *a iha 'iitinc or * dual'la^Ha* 
a*Uth to Th* latarlac* cird< Bccvaalbl* via on* n* i*a 1 arr* Mlii |* ih* 
aala fra**, alio** tb* baud rata to b* aaaity alt*r*d. 

la addiiiaB. * baud rata aailelv aual ha 'litad to th* ATM caeiaita 
latarfaca, and aki||a Ih* Bollla* of Ihta aattch la taailarlil dorlna 
rKaroloK i( ir*at h* **t to tba approf t i at a baud rata dun a* playbacb.- 

Tb* ACM oadju lator/doaodMlotor elrcwlt dtaara* (to t>» fou&d naar tba 
un4 mt th* a£3A baadlboohl and a ■oataal i at l*r»* . tr.-ui> ia« r r i : .t i*.n (pad* *" 
or tba baadbeok) ladleaia tbal lb* (Ircultrr In *o*t)y lotln b*a*d. tba 
racordma clrcmiLry t UBtnd. I** "4*1* ib~ **d "■ ;■••» la" *i*ula to aroduca 
a* audio toaa, coail*ta *atlra)r of toKlc ahoaa output la 0aaa*d Ihroudh a 
lupiOR aH">ri to praduc* ilo* aa***i la* oniput of Itula dtlnrl )a laaa, 
but eslr aaraloallr *o Iba* tbat obtata*d at 3PKi tau4. To ola*bach tapaa 
raoo'dad al *f>0 bawd tha playback liilu clrruiirr aniat b* altarad, but ealy 
*lola*lty. 

Tb* ttalatt circuit {•** ria. 3) **** up of # IS. aid, Cfl and traaalator 
r>l diffaraatiataa b*l***« la* ihd hi en rrtquaaury Iob*b tffnrdut to ahatbar 
lb* cbarftloK tolttft aeroaa r» aaeaoda ih* thraabold laval of |C» bafor* 
balai dlacbarrad br tb* aaltchtaa na at "J - a loa rr*o u **i>y toaa alloaa C« 
•dltaita to *a«**d tb* iUr*aa*id *an* a bicb frequancy tesa do»a not. 

Tbla tioa coa*l«4l fo/atad by "16, bl3 «ad Ca aual »* halvad to alio* 
for tba lilcbar fr*«.u*a«l*a uaad la tKKl liaud operation, thla la ai*Ply don* 
by LoaarltBf a aaltcb <fft la »1I, ») ahich pdta addltloaal raBlalora 
l"a atut *(s> la parallal altb fl« *ad **.*>• Tha hi vartabla raatator can h* 

W Micro Journal 



adl«*t*d aitbar by ualatt ■>** or lha taat proiraaa r!«« in, tba A/TV) Baaual 
or b? avtiurloi lb* oatatlaC raalataara nf *lb • *Ia *od i b« » aalteblar la 
and adjuaiinp Ih* n*« variabl* raalataara lo at** halt tha pra*a*a**l| 
aaaaurad valu*. 
roarfHiBiQiia 

Tb* rhnrm dfaru*a«d -f«iv* Jtav* pfok-ori f*limbi* aed alaml f f fant ty 
taprovad tb* umny of a caaaalla tiaaad araia*. It Kaa b**o fewad tbat 
opor«iio* at ann baud la aaril foraat la accaptabl* lor InadtdP abort protr*** 
aacli aa iHdr* d*v*lap*d ualnr? an adltor aaaaau>l*r oarkada *olth aubaaauanl ly 
uaaa a iinkluc loadar la Join all tha eiropraa wedulaa tootlMr> tueb ■ 
Prndraa aoan finally cearplata caa thaa b* ti«atf aad Loadod la binary forsat al 
IWtf) baud 1* a ilallar aauar to that adraeaiad for tb* Loadlac if a l*f-a* 
Paale *r editor Aaaaojhlar rnHuir tfa larp* p**mrtm la load*d at *no baud 
uaiHH tb* binary lorarat. . Ih* luad tl** ntl b* awtAk 1 aal « 1 t imt ifwarl*r nf 
tbat tab** to load al w bakHl tn ih* *s'l i foi>a*t 

laf arabcaa 

{!) Star], P. A. <I«T»> TBouRbla OP tba gWTV roaani tar flya^aa 
mlobaod dtrrocoapatlab V* pp dft-ai. 

(a) PLlaa. d. aAd rail*. A. Ia«laa« riff Pot* 100. «CV MJOLT 

Mltbut/BloUiHt km. NOtomLB Saailrosdueto-r Prodocta. 



Mgxir* 1 Pjaaordlai foraat Ualpp t«o *V 1 1 cbaraclara for aaeb 

• bit anrd 

riBur* t m-.jb1 -in-lib* aTJltadj rm*d to tntarfar* car* alio** tb* 

baud rat* t» b* chancad via a r*ar pan*] irrm ho]* 

F IftW T* a NodlfJcatlaa to ACV> daawdulator rlrcaltry lor Dm baud 

oparaltoa . *.a and ab ar« aadad la parallal altb axlatlBa 
ria and 116 via •#» a*itcb 31. 



DATA RECORD 




J7 



BIT Bucket 



love City, lew 5J2»» 



KB: 9>o*e Slout) 

31336 via Cnlliua 
■Bltllkn VU1WU. C* 01363 

loMj+o MoTftrtrvj Cormrvcahor*, ric. fl 



NewsReieosc 



( aj ves b sr m, 19*» 

58 Micro Journal 
3018 rwsCi; Nd 
JO Boa &*» 
HllKZi. IM 373*3 



.■■-. f " -,» 



mi "^iftTf »■****» 



Jilt Swarti 

(ill] 577-t701 



flMPB ■""«"«*»" 1.*. i 



Vlb&JvSf, CA- Kovesber 17. 1980 ... Sacks Signal Broadcasting 
, S68) haa announced that the now 'octo-d-wxs Ity" 5 1/4" flexible dlait 
drive li new Available In its 6f309-8erlea of Cblaftaln anal 1 bualneee 
cenputpre. 

Tbs dcive'a dcw-Me-track, double-bit, and double-tided design 
provldea a total ot one and one-half segabyt.ea of fotsstted etorage 
capacity in Its standard dual-driv* configuration, according to nlc 
Haaoond, SSB preaidant. 

•uiiJi tb* ad-lition of thla n#v capability, wi can now support a 
coaplate range of asall businitas syzttsns that will Mat virtually any 
etorage t*sulrn»cr.t or aoftware application. It alao repreaenta a 
versatile conplcMnt to the 6809 nlcrofroceaaor" . t* added, 

SCe** Cola r tain Motlcl $524 alio incorporates Sir WW, two aerial 
porta, nonltor in ROIl And SBB'a D0S6 9. The conputer'a €809 
•nlcroprocf ssoi a Hows user a to tufi proqrana In fcA£.C at over two and 
one-hall Uses the apesd ot 680Q-baa«d ayatasu. 

Recording dLTdlty of the drive* la i.8>7 BP1 with 60 tracks per 
side. Tfflck-to-ttacl. tide Ifl 1 Billiseconds and Tpi la 96. 

Single quantity retell price of the Chieftain Bedel 9S24 la 
S4,0?i with Of H and dealer dlacoynta available. Delivery la fees 
atock. 

For further i n! cravat lor , contact Jin Al lday of SSB at (211) 
itt-9340. 



KEN YON 1 

MICROSYSTEMS 



mc. on «IUm 
'«■ Htom Journal 
Nil Hasill kmH 



juet ■ note eo let you know wTutt'a going, on hare at J-* 1 . 

ftxet, wa went Hi thai* lU the BUM who have purohe-wj WWW. we « prlllly 
want to Cher* thoee t-iwtCTiMFi™ who have taken the tbee to wl« or coil with 
nifty little peicrae), application |iw» » and the "he. *»>'re trying to put 
theee all tiaj wtjwa end hope to nail thaw, out as • Oa-let*a* Thar* You- to 
thoee itc have parted with theU evcx ehru*l«? dollar, to ourcheae the tflFIU 



I'd UM to ncoBfU an exceptionally helpful and ooneclontioua onalar— Jerry 
(copal (MA OOcaep Co*wt«r Center or wheelwe,, lliirnla). ThuuSi hay nt naa 
r*lp«3 m Jiany tl«ea with rteld «ali service and phone advice for ay S-5CC eyatse 
SO prav^tly that the distance between Iowa City and Chicago has land nosUKlMe. 

He haa haloed aje lOwade ay aysua »f lettlne a> t/*o> up aa •* needa have OTMI. 
Unlike other dMiara (aapetlal^p aawclateo with Ohio Sclent iric 1 had tserora) M 
dota not aand thlnjo* CTJO without celLljij me flrat. In other wonu. he naa given 
■a my aoney 1 * worth and has not sprung additional chergnn, bb aoae other dealer* have. 
Ha la very coat and valuaMweloua but haa tulrey* reviewed quality liadtatlgra with 
pa carefully fterore a piuvyvase haa been concluded. 



llJioerely youni, — "" 

Cmrad Swartt, fhD, M) 



O'CONNOR ASSOCIATES 



aarznd, •*> an now Rnira^lvng: t-^KW \rwslt_n 1.1. DWj 0190001 dlfsT-Bxeat aiv thsw 
nmt W-a¥---»i a*tft weeds and the cajafall.ty to aritt iinUJ-a dlak drive* (l... *t* 
and 6', dlff-vnant nst-or of traefca per diaX, dlffezcnt ajflt-u of ■ 
txadd . Ploa»» **m the 1 



ThlBl, puRwhsttera of t KlOW* will now be rwonlving tko dlaka in tholx L 
One dl** coUaftlna the tTORTH*. «oftV«u« m) the other ia a "T*tf aided 
UVtruCtliri anarac: caili-d "OilAa pTJOV . TW* cnarak) will taacti thoae new bo 
Che Lan^ie-TP the furtaii uTali erf ^^laBiii-rs, In TOfCM. Bvon vith tr ma e extra 
o»-*U*-a , th* or lo» fair*, the mm. 

laaTe.teaTIM ia now avallaMe Ux the HtTttnOaU trnrrii+r. 



Ihmi K. KenycB 
Preatd-nt 



CusrouircD hahowahc ■ sof fw*re ron micrio cowputcrb 
aa>-iw haven »t ■ cmicauo iu tot*i « in 1.. uti 



Don Hlllliat, Editor 
'40' Micro Journal 
3011 Haoill Rd. 
nitcaon, Tennaeaae, 37343 

Dear Hr. Hllllaavj, 

Aa a free lance progrtonr X have done a little bit of 
pro? r .waning on a lot of different Mchinn, Dt,til tvoantly. I 
thooght the the XW waa the beet ailcro around invlndlog the 
£800. Then 1 did an eeaeatbly lan^ •<*]« pioHraa on the new 

TRSolO Color Ceaiputer. Thla m* china uaea the 6809 and It baa 
■ads a believer out of we. "CM that 1 tm back worfrlng with 
the 180 again it la Ilk* aoving back to the Dark Mae, The ISO 
)u»t cannot eotepare to the 6809. When I first atarted uelag 
the 6809 I thoi-sht I " d never tmdaratand all the different 
addraaalng andea. Now I don't know how to do without the*. 

I eepeclelly liked being able to use a reeleter aa the 
offaet when Indexing lnataad of e constant. The only way 1 
know to change the Index offaet with other ptecMnee la to gee 
self aodlylAg code. 1 aleo found the relative addreeelng 

pwda* puide la extrestely aaay to write relocatable code. The 

auto incriMnt and decree-vnt fioasiand* ara ltea_t X bave only 
aean in 16 bit a-ach-nat befor , 

Tho THS-80 color Coas>u-e>r say not b* enyvay near the 
league of Clt-lx or Motorola ssjorelaer, but wffven it ocaaia to 
picking out the beat chip available, aoraeona at: Tandy knows 
what they are doing. 



l*oh s. O'Connor 

Dear Mi Williams, 

Aa 1 a-sntionad in ey flrat letter, T have dor** a little 
hit Of programing on a lot of different *aehln*a. For the 
paat two yesra 1 have bean working aljwoat airolualvaly for the 
Insge rroducsra. Inc., a aoftware houee frost Worthhrook 
Illinois. I did a BA&lr fleer, program on the Bally arcade 
which w«* prletailly used hy Sally ln-housa. The Arcada la 
built around the l-8fl, and although it was not each sore than 
a toy, It had aceaa potential *m a ooaaputar. About: a year ago 
I* arte negotiated a contract with Sear* to Produce software for 
the Atari. 1 did two of the Programs currently on eale under 
the seara label, •Foman Chackera" and "Oil Walla". Xatega 
Producer! eleo aalle some aoftware under their own label and X 
have written gen* progress for the Atari and the Tesee 
Xnstr.eaente TX99/4 under the Tu9t label. On the T199/4 1 did 
Wlldcettlng, Koetan chackara, rrsnie Op, Bingo Duel, end itsbfr 
Hunt. Hy beat aalllng program done ao far le Typing Tutor for 
the Aadlo Shack TRS-iO. Although it was developed at Xeega 
Produeera, It la aold under the Microaoft label. 

Hy wit recent prograsi waa done (in asaa*d>ly laoa>isgsl 00 
a development protyps of the new TRS-80 Color Cosputer. 
Although the prograsi waa flniahed ahortly before the Color 
Cosputer waa announced, 2 didn't eee the real cosaiuter until 
aaveral weeka after the annosnes-aent. The s-ichiiw* I worked on 
waa not wuch eore then a keyboard and a PC board bolted to a 
place of plywood. Between the tle-j I flrat Rev the MChlM at 
Xswigs, and the tiea X flnlahert the product, alsoet every part 
of the ayatev. frosi the keyboard to the BORta was changed at 
least once. Since the progra*- X worMwd on hea not been 
released y*t, I cannot k-totlen Its nasal It ia a teadilng 
progras wnicti will be aold aa a plug. In AC** cartridge. Your 
readers would probably be lntereal:ed in the fact that every 
programmer at Xs-ige who worked on the TR8-«0 Color COSrjrater 
agreed that the 6809 waa the beat aicroprontior they had 
tforkad with ao far. 

X SP currently working on a buaineaa progra* for the 
Model ill TRS-8C, to he written in X-kO aea«s#Jly lansuag-a. 
There ie no dovht in sy stnd that the Ho*: ran nui rings 
around the £-80. 

IB taking eos* graduate level nrarssa st the oniwarslty 
of Illinois circle Csstpna. X sogulrefl aossf RDf-ll aseaehbly 
lenguage experience. The aaaasbly language of ths 6809 
coerparai quite favorably with this mi nirrtapoter's instruction 
a«t, end le far aopvrior to t-blt sd.ciui>tvv*R sore X hare 
worked with (6502, 8080, i.-e0, 6B0D). 



28 



68 Micro Journal 



•cti-dH proqram!*? 1 fiav* alao Hon* technical vrltlfttf 
for R*dlo Shack and CSC Aaaociotva *od i aaaafaetot* a 
bMrciH Wt a»d a rasot bet»en tittndfr for th» Ntxto 1 I 
TtU-IO wMh ia sold by EBC A* tool at* a. 

lnam O'Cofioor 

Editor's not*: The above Is Inserted to show where 
Leah 'comes from'. It Is always nice for newcomers to 
find out some good Things we have all know for years. 



..•CMrr. 1.TMP2.0UT. 1.7W1>J. .<l >«-li. »<1 >*••,(! H-5 

— t«c sort/hmoe vi.3 «— 

OUT HUH »1 - IS* RECORDS 

1M UCOKOS SORTSO 

KIT PA0C1NC MM REQUIRED 

♦♦♦PDEL. l.TMPl .OUT 



DtLtTI "l.TOH.OUT"! IT 



m. DON KILLIAMS ■>., $-29.10 

«»" »!HO JOUR ML 
M1I0N, TENNESSEE J7343 

ArlEA 1EEIM A PROGRAM 10 10 NEARLY THE SAME THING, I THOUGHT 
THt READERSHIP WT *[ lnrCItJlfp IK THE fflLLOMKi w»y OF G£ 1 r I HG/MOfJlF 1 1 H.I 
RUNNING DISC rltES MICH REQUIRE lliri [HBurF AS PARAMETERS OK FILE 
SPECIFICATIONS. THIS NORJCS ON A Milt SYSTEH. IUT PRuBMLY VILL ALSO 
HDIIK ON 4*00 SYSTEMS AS MELL. 



AS AN EtAMPlEl 10 RUN 'ASM' KITH flODIFlCATIOMS. 1 YPE THE F0LL0NI.CI 
HI 0. ASMS. CMOlnOll, 1 .HLEHAME. TIT,. LiMGe 
THEN MM RETURN, MOClFY THE MEMORY, AND THEN USE COHlKOL p TO JUHP 
TO THE HAROSTAAT ADDRESS (0000 FOR ASMS). EVERYTHING ETER *M0N. ' IS 
PICKEO UP (V THE ASMS HMEH IT EOS IT. 

THIS HAS PROVEN INVAluASLE FOR KSUGGIHC UTILITIES ST USING 
S1UC-E BREAKPOINTS. IT CAN M US FOR CHANCING 01HTE S, COUNTERS. 
ETC. SEFORE RUNNING THE PROGRAM . 

IT HAS ALSO COPC TO NY ATTENTION THAT SOMA" PROGRAMMER S 00 HOI 
■ EA111E THAT FTER SOME 0«A LINE HITS OR OTHE MALFUNCTIONS 

or the srsTEn. basic Papuans as «li as others mat tl recovereo 

by hitting beset and then using the control p to jump to the 
muwtart aooress (0003 in (asic and others) amd then using 
'save' to mite the file on oisk. 

ore program that 1 use before testi hc/0c1uc61 hc he n procmjms 
is called 'sir' nh1ch stores sot imam i nt err ups (me« if) in all or 
loafr memort. this i n1atialiies memory in the saw hay all the time 
so that a program should alhats sloh up i k the sane hay. or stop 
ir it runs mho into unusio memort. it is also useful when you 
many to see nhat is jn memory after a program has run (a 'if 
in memory sticks out as an unused iyte1. 

to us . ty el 53fiasm* .filename 

AAAtJY LILLY NX I 
75} S. CARLSON ST. 

ALLENTONN. PA. 11103 



READY 

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9-H-SO t»0» So'tv.r. PACf I 

HAM S]F »-2»-«0 R.L. 

• ASDT fLEI UTILITY FOR SNtCP COHPtlTCR 

• STORE SoriUARE INfERRUPTS IN LONER nfnORT 

• AlIO SHONS MAY TO PUT MRSION HUMES IN SCRJICE 

• WHICH 'HCR.CMO' UTILITY NlLL FIND 



NEMEHD I0U 
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ft*. >»4 or coiitIm (K. Mjar ..pact, of JCP. «a4 1 IlMHiAht H uovla Nt 

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arltcla Tor a04ltl«ul o>pl.4Mtl«4 of tho JCP .tat ■■■*!■ uto4> 

nay I a(.tfl thank yiht , .ad aapraaa ay appraclatlon for ta* avcalloot 
ferua that tk. Jovr.al offaro th* 4111 coaNMOlty. 

Stacar*!«i 

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t*iti -Virrj, 

'68' Mi era Journal 



to! 



1 VI (Ml SlIHi 
iSTD Co4a 03?*, 



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*>r* Hon i.uiiai, 

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ip«ar Don, 

l f.ava Ju«l ttartad a tuMcriPtiof. to *0*', artar 
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j>*vraaiao »Hft thm pro-sraui Unking BASIC to HJEl 
and tullvH to rtEA. 

m 1 n«t* o--ir th* citiiti* Editor *nd not tn* 
oiik vanion, I uMd Aft lallar'a pfograa and 
«rota t<rt>gr*»> in th* rlai ira/iaiant ccmajw*] 
4tP4e« to Dloi i*** and f.*«a Ulak coHu*ndi u*lno 
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•BITTEN Br HILLI1M l.NUCHES • 

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BLUE HAT SOFTWARE COMPANY 

l Box 4127 flint, Hiohififi 4B504 



CKuir Sin: 

Iq nUnoci ta th« rtvimw ol DIXIE APtW«,rfag in your Nov* 'BO •■ana; Plo.a* 
Inform your t«m1»t* that • p*ul> tor P»rcom SUPER BASIC (auf>Bortln| data fllaa) 
■n4 *a Mf»X-to-DlX)E dlak. coiw* r a km utUlty ar« oow avakUSL*. Soto jrtac»B at 
•oriWAr* «ra tacluvUd Ln tLa S60 prlc* Cor DIXIE. 



L^rrirE< Preilaa 
SEPTEMBER 12, 1980 



MR. DAVID WEEKS 

T k. D ASSOCIATES 

1210 TODD ROAD 

NEW PLYMOUTH. OHIO 4S6S4 

DEAR MR. WEEKS: 

JUST A NOTE OP APPECIATIOH FOR YOUR EXCELLENT 
PRODUCTS AND SERVICE. SEVERAL OF HY S800 TRIENDS 
HAVE REPORTED SIMILAR EXPERIENCES WITH YOU AND 
YOUR FIRM. ME T ONLY WISH YOU THE BEST OP 
CONTIN ED SUCCESS, BUT ALSO WANT TO UET OTHER *800 
USERS W*OW OF OUR EXPERIENCE. TH NKS AGAIH, FC 
YOUR QUALITY PRODUCTS AND SERVIC 



Y'it' 




liisi; 



WATSON 



MICRO JOURNAL 



9917 U Out* Crln 

IPMlngun, » 20791 
71 s.pv..t»r L9M 



Cbo IILlliM Sr. 

'68' Hloxo J«uxn«t 

xnt "-ill as. 

P.O. »o« 8*9 

Hln». T«w~ 57>5 



>*I Br. HllllAttBt 



I triad th. HniiriutlDIl dHCllM ej HUU1 1. Hut,] an Is th> 
Ijwll 1980 Ihim of '48' TOcro Jourml Ur prorld* i "toM-up" 
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■oaatlaaa n apoand pulaa In naaind. ' '" BIT to IOC nod nop. 

ntltutlac 18 oMn* for \ a r m., tr,-«ril-o?-rr»aa- oli«oltn Boaa 
not Nalp, Cne anyono aujfaat n nolutlos T toothar aaaJTloltton 
I «>uld Ilka to ana* la to Taaova Itm tltn lloo-faad ahan trplni 
In M3JC ahiu atlll Isnorloi llM-faala nod urtflB tta BKPjD luj to 
earfor* tna CR/ur f 'uirUpr. ■ Bnn nnjf zanaar aolvvd uil* FneOaa T 

1 find your Jauma.1 both halpful and lntaraatln|. Xhlla clanrly 
hurVir. fi « trand p 1 i«>uld w«1tom «or» at tantlon to topa nuwr 
than dlac ,.,»», I u anjortnt JPC'a oa> ltaiC/l irtth Idoobtud 
tnp*i av«n thotujh thar* aza atlll 1 f»w otvra JPC nan pmnltnd 10 
Tli. BV Bmrloua axparlanon vltb tho oonynrp; hn« Tjoan ao fpoo thnt 
Z an »lllloi to Hans In unra. 11310/) nu n rant of aood faaturaa 
lino iliM-aAjWt nod nbbrarlntad ooananodn, nod la about 301 fnotnr 
Ulan 3VTT ».I.) 



SlTioaraly youm. 




Support Our 



30 



ADVERTISERS! 

'68 Micro Journal 



THIS t^RSION Of Cl£X In PRIWI.SVS PRHCS THE HCUtl B36e C. ItC* 
PRINTER WITH THE JPC PKl*XCT5 TC -I COSSErTE INTERFACE BOARD. 



ton PRim.svs 

•IN1ERFACE PHRAU CtL PRINTER 
WITH JPC CBSStTIE BOnRD- RORI 7 

pine eou mbie iSsie - esae flex> 

• 1M1T1BL1ZE 8380 PRINTER 

ors vccca Acce - esae flex> 

• IFF TELL K* IJONT 
PIHS M-L .. ill'ul 1. [14 0. 

• '.MI0III0 LB.' RS &1IT0BE I 



POWERFUL INTEGRATED 
6800. 6809 SOFTWARE 



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LOR mil 

srn pims 

RTS 

•Pit INTER RE0OV7 

ORQ K>t» 

PRHK lit Mn*.l 

RTS 
•0U1F-Ut CMRRHCTER 

ORO «U£4 

POUT ?>R PCHK 

SPl P0U1 

1ST P10B 

Slfi P1H5 

RIS 



IBI flCK f OtS B7. 
Kl 'SELECT' TO 
FH08LE wee PRINTER. 



IS \>f SET ? 



WRIT l-Bft KX 

tO SET b7. 
O.EHR k7. 

SEN* OORRCTER. 



6 ERROR(S) DETECTED 

DON'T LST VOUR 1C-3 CBSStltE IHtEM-'ACC 6«rHtR [4JST WHEN YOU rtRE 
RUHNIH6 U1TH a FLOPPY SY5TEM. IT IS VERY CONVENIENT TO USE THE 
B SICE PID IHJTRJT FUR UURICUS H>SKS. RUN II UIR S IDS 09-23 

cohwCtor fc« euicK CMwaEs. 

STMORRRIZE DNV PlrtXJT YOU PRE>ER. 1 'r>tD DB-23 PI4 - BIT « 
TMROU8H R2I FOR BIT 7. CI <CB1> OUST eflNNECT T« RIB B! THE 
8MB PRINTER! THHT IS THE flCKHMLERSE OUTPUT Of 1IC PRIHlER. 
I MIRED P17 l P2S TOHEIMEP AT THE PRINTER PLUG HMD •RRKIEO 
THAT WilUMD OltR TO TIC 1} PIN ON THE 1C-J. C2 rC82> MUST 
CONNECT TO PI IT THE PRINTERl 17 STROBES THE PRINTER TMRT 
THE MIR IS iW.lt>. 

FOR WORT RIMS IT IS PROBOBLV HOT HEEDED. BUT I COHHECIED THE 
GROUND FOR EACH WITH BIT TO «. rER»«ITE U1RES IN IHE RIBBON CRQLE. 
THIS URS DOME Hi The PRINTER PLUS ONLY RM> TtC r*-2S ENDS MERE 
LEFT FLOHIKO. I6RORCI niTH UDS PI7 t P28 OS lENTIONED R800E.) 
BIT 7 IS HOT RTOUimO BV IH BJOfl PRINTER. 

1» «fi» IER 'JtRSIOKS 1 U5T0 a SOFTJlWE DELRV ROUTINE FOR TtC 
IMPOT PRIME SIONRL. FOR nv OPTL ICSTIONS IT DOES HOI SEEN TO 
BE RBOU1RED. 

R. PBTTER50H - P.O. SOX Mt - «TN UIEV. OR 7TUB 



HELP 



NEED SWTPC MP-A OR MP-A2 CPU CARD OR SIMILIAR FOR 
SS-50 BUSS. PREFER TO HAVE CARD OPERATIONAL, BUT 
WILL CONSIDER CARD THAT NEEDS REPAIR IF NECESSARY. 
SEND INFO, CONDITION, PRICE, ETC TO; 
GEORGE KELM - PO BOX 160 - YAP ISLAND, GUAM 96943. 
••« 

HELP! I I FREQUENTLY USE THE TSC'S TEXT PROCESSOR 
OPERATING UNDER MINIFLEX TO SET TEXT FILES RUNNING 
HUNOREOS OF THOUSANDS OF CHARACTERS. WHO CAN 
SUGGEST A PRINT SYSTM FOR USE WITH THIS THAT WOULD 
USE H2500 TO H6500 FOR A PRINT BUFFER INSTEAD OF A 
TINY BUFFER USED BY MINIFLEX? THE PRESENT BUFFER 
CAUSES A DISK READ FOR EACH TWO LINES PRINTED. THE 
WEAR ON THE DISK OR IVES IS UNBEARABLE. 
JOHN P TUCKER - PO BOX 2898 - LAREDO, TEXAS 78041. 

CLASSIFIED ADS 



Cr-64+9" MONITOR 1175. AC-30 CASSETTE INTERFACE 
CALL - J WYTSMA (404)262-3101. 



J30 



4K SWPTt MEMORY BOARDS S35 EACH, PERCOM DISK 
CONTROLLER WITH 3 ORIVE CABLES. 6800 DOS 4 FLEXTRAM, 
6809 MPX DOS, BOX 10 DISKETTE, APPROX $250 VALUE, 
WILL SELL FOR 1140 PERCOM ELECTRIC WINDOW WITH 6800 
WINDEX /9 ROMS 1235 COMPLETE. 6800 FLEX SOFTWARE 
— 6IG DISCOUNT!! CALL FOR PRICES. 

DR. MATTHEW SCUDIERE - 100 CEOAR LANE - OAK RIDGE, 
TN 37830 (615)576-7648 (OAY) / 482-1355 (EVENIN3). 
*«* 

CENTRONICS P-1 W/MP-LA CABLE 1250, SWPTC CT-64 $200, 

HITACHI 9« MONITOR 175, SWPTC AC-30 175. 

SHILLING - 2003 FAIRMEADOW - ARLINGTON, TX 76012 

(817)461-2239. 



All software it supplied in relocatable format and may 
be loaded anywhere in memory 

6100 RELOCATING ASSEMBLER AND LINKING 
LOADER. The assembler supports relocatable and ab- 
solute code, labeled common blocks, 47 error messages, 
alphabetited or non.alphabe tiled cross reference table. 
8 char global and local labels, TSC source compatabilny, 
and much more The linking loader will link up any num- 
ber of obiect modules and place the resultant object 
anywhere in memory that you wish 
MEI-ASMB-1A-10,M6I-LOAO-1A-10 $10(1.00 

SIN ONE PASS LINK EOITOR. Functions ma similar 
manner to the linking loader except that the final object 
is stored back on disc as one object module. This module 
may then be loaded anywtiere in memory by the linking 
loader IM66-LOAD 1 A-101 This allows the creation ol 
library ol relocatable 'quick-load' modules. 
M68 LNKA-1A-10 $45.00 

GIOO TWO PASS LINK EOITOR. Similar to the one pass 
link editor Some optimization is performed. 
M60LNKB-1A-10 $45.00 

68D0 GLOBAL CROSS REFERENCE GENERATOR. 
Provides the capability to tell at a glance all object mod- 
ules that reference a particular internal label. 
MGO XREF 1A-10 $35.00 

6100 OBJECT 0ISPLAVER. Lists the header of an nb- 
lect module Parameters displayed are program name. 
internal labels, external labels, time, date, and identifi- 
cation 
M6S-DISMA-10 $25.00 

SPECIAL OFFER. All 6 M6800 programs above are 
available lor $200.00 

A 6800 users manual describing all 6 programs above is 
available lor S1S.O0. This is refundable with your pur- 
chase ol the assembler and linking loader. All 6800 
software is supplied on 5 inch FLEX* discs and runs 
with FLEX' 2.0. 

esoY re'locating assemoier' a~n~d~ unking 

L0A0ER. Supports features similar to those of the 6800 
software above. Will also assemble 6800 and 6801 in- 
structions. 
M69-ASMB-1A-10, M69LOAO-1A-10 $100.00 

The lot lowing 4 programs lunction m a similar manner 
to then 6800 counterparts. 

6809 ONE PASS LINK EOITOR. 

MB9LNKA-1A 10 $45.00 

6809 TWO PASS LINK EOITOR 

M69LNKB1A10 $45.00 

6809 GLOBAL CROSS REFERENCE GENERATOR. 

M69XREF1A-.0 $35.00 

6809 OBJECT 0ISPLAVER. 

M69 0«SP-1A10 $25.00 

SPECIAL OFFER. All 6 M6809 programs above are 
available tor _ $200.00 

A 6809 urn manual describing til 6 oiogcams above it avwlable 
loi $15 00 (ralurwlabia with PwrChaw at nwmblar and loadml 
All 6809 lohwara it luepliad on 5-inch FLEX* ditci and runt 
will) FLEX' 9.0. 

A CATALOG Ol all ol our Sofiwart Producli is available FREE 
lor the aikina, 

•FLEXisaiiJdemailolTECMNICALSVSTEMSCONSULTANTS 

Cincjtek Software 

BOX 19365 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 4S21t 

15131 751-6203 



'68' Micro Journal 



-31 



IN YOUR COLOR COMPUTER! 



Now you can explore the Radio Shack Color Computer's impressive potentials— as an 
Inexpensive development system, a color peripheral, a process controller— ad Infinitum. 
The Micro Works introduces these powerful software tools for utilizing the color 
computer at the assembly language level. 

MONITOR TAPE: A cassette tape which allows you to: 

• Examine or change memory using a formatted hex display 

• Save areas of memory to cassette in binary (a "CSAVEM") 

• Download/upload data or programs to a host system 

• Move the video display page throughout RAM 

• Send or receive RS-232 at up to 9600 baud 

• Investigate and activate features of your computer, such as hi-res graphics or 
machine-language music 

• Use your computer as an intelligent peripheral of another computer, for a color 
display or a 6609 program development tool 

The monitor has 17 commands in all, and is relocatable and re-entrant. 
k 80C Monitor Tape Price: $29.95 



/ 

MONITOR ROM: The same program as above, supplied in ROM. This allows BASIC to 

use the entire RAM space. And you don't need to re-load the monitor each time you use 
it. 
V 80C Monitor ROM Price: S39.95 



r 

INSIDE THE COLOR COMPUTER: This package is a disassembler which runs on the 
color computer and enables you to generate your own source listing of the BASIC 
interpreter ROM. Also included is a documentation package which gives useful ROM 
entry points, complete memory map, I/O hardware details and more. Disassembler 
features include cross-referencing of variables and labels; output code which can be re- 
assembled; output to an 80-column printer, small printer or screen; and a data table area 
specification which defaults to the table boundaries in the interpreter ROM. A 16K 
system is required for the use of this cassette. 
80C Disassembler Price: $49.95 



THI/yV n/^rD^/o\ MasterChargeMsa Accepted 

LKf\ U K ^ It s J California residents add 6% tax. 

0)\^U kCAV p.o. BOX 1110, DEL MAR, CA 92014 [714] 942-2400 




6800/6809 PASCAL 

DYNASOFT PASCAL is a cassette based 
PASCAL subset designed to run on most 6800/ 
6809 systems with 12K or more of memory. 




most of 
SCAL 
>5?t»tHER 
FOR 
ROCED 



DYNASOFT PASCAL 

the control structures of st 
including IF THEN ELSE 
WISE. WHILEDO. 
TO/DOWNTO DQwyrec 
URE's and FUNGwjrYs [^j^pbrts the data 
types INTEGER>CHA©^e)OLEAN, scalar 
(user-definadfoubrartjjXSointer and ARRAY. 
It is buil^J0Und^afe pass compiler which 
produttanast^ompact p-code and comes 
complere withwJhe -oriented text editor, p code 
interpreter, and program SAVE and LOAD 
routines. The whole system resides in less than 
8K. 

The cassette version with manual is priced at 
$35 plus S3 for postage and handling. Please 
specify 6800 or 6809. 



systems ltd. 



P O BOX 51. WINDSOR JCT 
NOVA SCOTIA. CANADA 
BON 2V0 (902) 861 2202 



Give your computer . . . 
..the time of day! 



WITH THE CK - 7 CLOCK 
FOR SWTPC COMPUTERS. 



• A TRUE CLOCK, not a timer, keeps time 
continuously without servicing by the com- 
puter. Provides hours, minutes, seconds. 





• COMPLETE KIT $59.95 

* power supply allows clock to run 
with computer power turned off 



phone 

505 294-4623 




Pt«)[)UCISCO 
i o 
UN •nil 



i uk Ml' m Vu. 

add S3 shipping 



WE'VE GOT YOUR 
68XX SOFTWARE 



GYPSY TERMINAL COMMUNICATIONS PACKAGE 

• Completely interrupt driven 

' Send-Accept data files to from host 
' Your computer functions ONLINE as intelligent 
terminal to host machine 

* User-settable handshake. Most common proto- 
cols can be used 

' Spool Incoming data to printer 

' SET command allows setting about 50 different 
parameters to user's desired configuration 

' Baud rates up to 9600 permitted 
Available NOW for TANO Outpost 11 and coming 
soon for SWTPC and WAVEMATE. 



ED SMITH'S SOFTWARE WORKS 

* * 6800 Software 

Relocating Assembler 

Relocating Recursive Macro Assembler 

Disassembler-Source Generator 

Disassembler-Segmenting Source Generator 

Disassembler-Trace Debugger 

EPROM Support Relocator 

SMITHBUG Monitor 

BB00->6809 Cross Macro Assembler 
' ' 6809 Software 

Relocating Assembler 

Relocating Recursive Macro Assembler 

Disassembler-Source Generator 

Disassembler-Segmenting Source Generator 

B809->6800 Cross Macro Assembler 
Available on FLEX 2.0, FLEX 9.0, SSB 5" or 8" disks. 



OSBORNE BUSINESS PROGRAMS in TSC XBASIC 

Accounts Receivable 
Accounts Payable 
General Ledger 



We specialize in software for TANO, SWTPC, and 
WAVEMATE series 2000 computers 
Visa or Mastercard accepted 
Dealer Inquiries welcome 

FLEX is a TradeMark of Technical Systems Consultants 



(J\j^ 



Great Plain Computer Company, Inc. 



p.o 



P.O. Box 916. Idaho Falls, Idaho SJ401 



208— 5*9-3210 



'68' Micro Journal 



33 



64K DYNAMIC RAM 

FOR THE SS-50C BU5 



0000DDDD0000DDD0 
00DD0D00DD00DDDD 



□D 



] 000000 



□ □□»]□□□ 



DECODES It 01 70 AODICSS- LINES 
I MHz OPERATION 



FULL KIT 
ISSEMILED 



us s 499 
is* 599 



COMS 579 

CDN1699 



DELIVER! <-« NECKS 
DEALER IHQ. INVITED 

VIUCMTCHIOUI MO»|y DADE*. ACC 
OMTAHtO Hti AOO 7*. BALfA TAB 




RCE 



I0IERTS CONTROL EQUIPMENT 

MAO WIITON KO UNIT ] Wt.TON 
ON1AHIO CANADA Utl tWI 



(416)749-5062 (716)631-8178 



JPC PRODUCTS FOR 

6800 



COMPUTERS 




16 CHANNEL A/D BOARD 

• 8 BIT DATA 

• SOFTWARE CONTROLLED GAIN 

• 3300 SAMPLES PER SECOND 

• ±0.7% ACCURACY 

COMPLETE KIT: AD-16 $69.95 



Tarma: Cash, MC or Vila; Shipping b Handling 13.00 



'JPC product* 



Order Phone (505) 294-4623 
P.O. Box 5615 
Albuquerque, N.M. 87185 



M 



thi SCREDITOR II a>» TREK6864 a.i hi..., 

Vivo «p«tt the lac i year working oo it. »e*ve taken your Ideas At »"t ■ REAL-TIME, LIYE-ACTIO" TUE-type einolatioft for tb« 

■ ad addad nova of our own, and com up vltb the aoit powerful, 6800 la beret TR£Jt6*64 la Cb» boat exciting arcade-type («■« 
•aar-to-tiaa. OtTOJi/FOflMATTKn available today for the 66001 Ixaok avar aval labia for 6800 uavrvt 

at a fee or tha featuree of tba 3CBEDIT0H II and n« why *v aay 

ll'e tba BEST adltor avallabla for HEHOflY-KAPPEO DI8PLAV8I * AS YOU VATCN, tha DAasTANG lBVadere l«ploawnt conluainfi bitlli 

plaaa, tbalr Uiti ooviag toward you, tiring aa 

• FULL SCREE" fOWIATTIfW - Tab* ami Ptarflna ere fully dynualc - tbey com, tbalr pbotoa torpedoee bourne Oft foul 

aal or aova l bee. aoyebere. any tlael 

word wrap, paragraph ap.Lttlng. lib* * AS YOU WATCH , your energy decrement*, becoming daagerouely low 

«i)dmt all honor loe current *»rglet *»d Tow caaaot warp becauue of dmir. But wait* 

- DYNAMIC SCREEN DISPLAY * *het you do la InaadlatVly vLelble oo * *S YOO VATCN. a «•»■(« flaabaa - VARP DRIVES REPAIRED! No* to 

tha acraan - Inaarta, deletea, Una find a baaa - you icm - a baaa la found I You 

cbaniea, copiae. f 1 1* e*rgee. ate... rotate tba CtKTURlAN la prepare to warp. ..and a 

all bappao aa you watch torpedo hi tat CLOAllMG DEVICE DA MA GEO I You warp' 

■ MULT.-MOOE EDITING - ] B LIKE nod* , HO ■ru or paragraph * AS YOU VATCN, tba qundraet you rn tared la lafaatad vltb aura 

Tilling takva plica. Idaal for 6a* Ic . DAASTAJfG, . . and tba? have apotled you t Lvea a* 

Patcel, forth or nna*a.bly league** you aova tovard your baaa. you are bit itn« and 

coding? la TEXT *ode, automatic word again* IMPUL3I EXG.KSS DAMAGED*. CLOACING DEVICE 

wrap, paragraph filling, it ma tut flEPAIflEDI You cloak quickly to avalt repalre. aa 

document preparation a breeael tba DA 03 TAMO begin to imp tba quadrant in coa* 

fualonl i*l)L your energy run out befora tha ra- 

• MfVLACllCElfT STMI1103 - Deftaa e m vorda, pbraeea, avan paira ara complete? vlll tha DAR3TAK0 daatroy 

(taaaBud aequaecea aa a alagle charac- your baaa before you cab dock? Only time vlll 

tar - oee kayttroke aatry raplacaa a tall u you play TREJCBM4* 
lot of typing! Evan aava find load tba 

repleoemeate to aad froai sMakl Tbia REAL-TtKE game La tba K>at ebgromBlng simulation you hav* 

avar aaao for lb* ««OOt If you hav« a 64x1* WWOUT -UAPPED board, 

■ XEYTJOAHO <JUBUE BUFFER * »or eyatema which cac support in tar- aod ae ACIA or IMA keyboard port, you too can play TS£K«*04 

rupl operation, full type-abeed la a And, Ilka our OCpeDITOn II, ve provide a SYSGBti prograa to make 

aleodard feature* mod if lcai lone eaalarl <SO cbaractar varalooo Available aoon. ) 

And, finally, tha price la right ! 

• STSCErf CU a Toil I z IT IOW * No acre boura of aachloe coda palcfcea 

eltb tba SOlEDlTOn 1 1 - we provide i TWEB«€j< PftOGRAH DISK;. IflMUAL , . + + »H . *5 

coeniate XXMXV progTa* wtilcb will do FROCKiM ASSEMBLY USTlTO $3*. *i 

tba %ork for you - alvtply in««rr tba PtOGMM SODBCX CCDC OH DISK. . . « , , %9Q -5 
quaatlaoe, BBd your paichee are donet 

The SCREDITOR II now aUpporte SO coamanda, 24 ecreee operatora, 

aad le coanletely upward'Coatpatable vltb all teat end eource 

file baodlteg pr-K r ae»l A full co-reeldeet proceaeor to be an- FLEX IS A TradeMjrk Of Technical Systems COflSuJUntS 

BOUOoad aooal Available dob for TSC PLI1 1,0 end 3,0. S80 OCCOS 

aod STTPCO e»lnl-nJOt. AAd all popular MZvDCY -fcUPPEO DJIPLAYSf 

PkOGRAM DISC. 100 PAG* UARUAL . . . 170. 05 

iukual oily 14B.B9 Alford and AssocltteB 

SOURCE LisTlJrO »3B.Bfl nilwl " •>-"■ nMUBlltBD 

SOURCE CODE ON DISK ........ M2i. Bfl 

P» 0. Box 6743 

(Tbla ad eaa cOBrpovad ualng only transfer letterLag aed tbe new 
BC8E0 ITOV II ) 

„ Richmond, Vi., BSB30 

VA. r.ald.m. Add 4* «•!• >•!.• ru. tC, TISA. CDC'., ccr.oc.l * ' 

cb.cha Acc.pt.d. Ol.cka riqulrt lool.r Co prpcsea. Tor ordara _ _ . a.ia.% a>mmm 

undar .100. add »» for pippin I AAd budllif. B04t~ ' 310 ~ 671 S 

'08' Mlao Journal 



SMOKE SIGNAL BROADCASTING 

Presents 

3 Powerful New SS-50/SS-50C Boards 



DCB-4 

Disk Master 

Double Density Controller Board 

and DOS68D Double Density DOS 

S449.00 



The new DCB-4 is a truly state-of-the-art develop- 
ment which allows up to 366K bytes to be stored 
on a single 5/4" disk and has these outstanding 
features: 

• Up to four 5% "and four 8" drives can be 
handled in the same system with a user de- 
finable logical unit table. (DOS680 will be 
compatible with future hard disk systems). 

• Under software control, the user can select 
the following for any drive: 

6 Single sided or double sided operation. 
6 Single density or double density data. 
<t 5'/4"or8". 

* Stepping Rate. 

* 40 track or 35 track density on double 
sided 5/4" drives. 

A User can select the system boot configu- 
ration. 

• Occupies only 16 bytes of memory space 
(F76Q-F76F standard). User selectable to any 
16 byte address space. 

• Can read and write a single sector by itself. 
Onboard buffer memory allows full inter- 
rupt capability in interrupt driven systems. 
Once data transfer has been initiated, no 
more processor time is required, 

• Contains extended decoding circuitry for ex- 
tended addressing per SS— 50C bus which 
can be enabled by an option jumper. 

• SSB provides a means for copying software 
written by older versions of OOS68 to be 
read by OOS68D. All new media formatted 
by DOS68D can be read by all older versions 
of DOS68. DOS68 is SSB's 6800 disk opera- 
ting system. 

• Track of side is recorded in single den- 
sity per IBM standard. 

• Phase-locked-loop assures highest data inte- 
grity attainable. 

All of these features are available for immediate 
delivery on one standard 5%" x 9" 50 pin SS— 50/ 
SS-50C card for only $449.00. The price includes 
OOS68D version 5.1, MONITOR object code on 
diskette, and a manual with the source listing. 



SCB-69 

Super Computer Board 

6809CPU Board 

S299.00 



The most versatile 6809 CPU Board on 
the market is now available from 
Smoke Signal Broadcasting and has the 
following features: 

• Standard 2 MHz operation. 
(Shipping 1.5 MHz until 68B09 available) 

• 20 bit address generation for up 
to 1 Mbyte of memory. Uses an 
improved address translation RAM 
which is compatible with present 
extended addressing schemes yet 
requires much less overhead when 
used in multi-user systems. 

• All onboard devices can be switch 
selected to occupy any or all ex- 
tended pages. Any onboard device 
may be disabled and its memory 
space is then available for exter- 
nal memory. 

• Standard real— time clock (time— 
of— day, day— of— week, day— of— 
month) with battery back up ca- 
pable of generating programmable 
interrupts. 

• Up to 20K of EPROM can be in- 
stalled on the CPU Board. 

• Standard 1K of RAM onboard. 

• Includes improved 6809 Monitor 
(and source listing). 

• Contains an FPLA for decoding 
EPROM address and optional de- 
vices. Switches are used to select 
2K/4K EPROM and Fast/Slow I/O. 

• Contains provision for optional 
9511/9512 floating point pro- 
cessor. 

• NMI line is user selectable to work 
with either SS-50 or SS-50C 
busses. 

Price for the new SCB— 69 is only 
$299.00 for an assembled, burned-in 
fully tested board. 



M-32-X 

32K 

Memory Board 

$539.00 $439.00 



The first and only 32K 
Static Ram Board on stan- 
dard size (5%" x 9") 
SS-50/SS-50C Bus Cir- 
cuit Card is made by 
Smoke Signal. 

• Switch selectable to 
any 4K boundary. 

• Any 4K block may be 
switch enabled or dis- 
abled. 

• Fully compatible with 
SS-50C extended ad- 
dressing (allows mem- 
ory decoding up to 
1 Mbyte). 

• Extended addressing 
capability may be 
switched off for com- 
patibility with SS-50 
systems, 

• Gold Bus Connectors 
for high reliability, 

• Guaranteed 2MHz op- 
eration (tested at 2.2 
MHz). 

• Low power consump- 
tion — 8 volts at 
2.4 amps typical. 



M-32-X 
Board is 
$539.00. 



32K Memory 
priced at 




M-24-X 24K Memory 
Board expandable to 32K, 
is $439.00. 

And our M-16-X 16K 
board is back to the old 
price of $299.00. 



BBOABCASTIHf 



31336 Via Colinas, Westlake Village, CA 91361, (213) 889-9340 



Disk Controller Boards 

SWTPC 5' DC- 3 $150.00 

SWrPCS" DMF-2 395.00 

SSB 5" BFD-68-5 335.00 

55B8- BFD-66-B 335.00 

MICROWORK5 DM-8S 

Mixer KM for convening lo BFD-68 

(o both S' and 8' operation 39.95 

SSB DCB-4 449.00 

CIMIX 5/8 Disk Controller 226.58 

Please Include $5.00 lo cover Shipping and Handling 
SWTPC Bareboards 

MP-Sb, MP-LAb, MP-Nb, MP-Rb. MP-Tb 15.00 

MP-8Mb. MP-09b (6809 Processor Board) 25.00 
We Have Most SWTPC Kits in Slock 

Software: 

6800 or 6809 Modem Program with Disk Pile Transfer (or 
SSB or FLEX Instructions and Source Listing 25 00 

Disk with source and object (specify 6800. 6809. SSB FLEX) addlO.OO 
Editor Text Processor- Mailrng Labels- Mailing Lists 
ALL IN ONE for any terminal Speciry SSB orFLEXand Version 35 00 
Source Listing add 35 00 

MkrOtime 6800 Calendar and Clock Board (see review 
Feb 1980 '68' Micro Journal) 
Bareboard. connectors, and documentation 3500 

Assembled and tested 105 00 

1154 digit Math Package with Fortran Type Formatting 100 00 

Business Random Basic R3 for SSB 50 00 

Mark Data Random Basic (Fastest Basic Avail for SSB DOS) 60 00 
Payroll (Process any number of employees, fast) 400 00 

ALL IN ONE for only $35.00 

Editor - Text Processor - Mailing Labels - 

Mailing Lists For Any Terminal 

Supports Editing commands such as bottom, change, delete. 
find, insert (single line), input (multiple lines), list. next, overlay (with 
cursor editing, character deletion and insertion), overslnke (for 
selected darker text), print, restart, set, top, underline, up, and verify 

Supports Text Processing commands such as block copy, 
block move, centering, margin Justification (widen and narrow), paging, 
and tabbing. 

Mailing Lists and Labels. Use the same nvulmglist disk file (with 
protected areas) for both mailing labels and repeal letters Repeal 
letters are personally addressed lo each person or selected persons on 
the mailing lisl 

Most Powerful File Handling found in any editor Appendonefile 
lo the end of another, or insert (merge) one file into another as 
desi3na(ed by the line pointer Print specified lines loyour pnnter or lo a 
disk file. Edit files larger than the text buffer Does r»l produce output 
dies when not desired Delete disk files from the Editor 

Printer commands. Control characters can be sent to the printer 
for formal control either directly from the control terminal or by 
imbedding them in (he text The Set command contains interface 
initialization and character output routines to support the SWTPC MP 
C interface as well as (he standard serial and parallel interfaces User 
also selects the port address (0 thru 7. A or B)therebyeliminatingthe 
need for the user lo install printer software routines 

Editor allws exiting to either the monitor or DOS and then reenter 
(Warm Start) without destroying previously prepared text in the buffer 
The Restart command erases contents in the buffer without the user 
having lo reload the editor 

The Editor allows the user to toggle between full duplex (no echo) and 
half duplex (echo) as needed. Il responds lo commands in both upper 
and lower case and can be used to create assembler source code and 
Basic programs as well as text 

What do you have to lose ? Specify 6800 or 6809, SSB orFLEXand 
Version. Source listing is available for an additional $35.00 

/TT\ AAA Chicago Computer Center 

V-- I 120 Chestnut Lane. Wheeling, IL 60090 

^— • SEE GIMIX AD PAGES 3 4 48 (312) 459-0450 
Dealer for GIMIX. SSB, SWTPC. and TSC 

FLEX is a TradeMark of Technical Systems Consultants 



'68' MICRO JOURNAL 

•^ The only ALL 6800 Computer Magazine. 
if More 6800 material than all the others com- 
bined: 

MAGAZINE COMPARISON 

(2 years) 

Monthly Averages 

6800 Articles 

TOTAL 
KB BYTE CC DOBB'S ' PAGES 

7.8 6.4 2.7 2.2 19.1 ea. mo. 

Average cost for all four each month: $5.88 

(Based on advertised 1-year subscription price) 

68' cost per month: $1.21 

That's Right! Much. Much More 

for About 

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1-Year $18.50 2-Year $32.50 3-Year $18.50 



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68 MICRO JOURNAL 

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HIXSON. TN 37343 



Foreign surface add $9.50 per year. 
Foreign Air Mail add $29.00 per year. 




j^sljl*^ 



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Life Subscription $250.00 
Note:Canada£Mexico ADD $4.50 per year. 
New subscriptions require 6-8 weeks 
processing time. 




36 



'68' Micro Journal 



DIGITAL RESEARCH COMPUTERS 

(214) 271-3538 



32K S-100 EPROM CARD 
NEW! 



"Mllll 
11111111 




i i 



USES 2716*« 
Blank PC Board - $34 



ASSEMBLED & TESTED 
ADO $90 

STCCUU. 271* EMOH'i {450 NS) A/* 114 » IA. With Aoov* Kit 



KIT FEATURES 

1 USM *>5V only ?7l6 (JKxB, EPROM S 

2 Allow* up lo 32* ol ioMwi ir on |in#i 

3 tEEE S-lOO CompaUiX* 

4 AddraSftlBIt tt MfO independent 16K ft OokJplltadCOhriCt ling**-. 

ttochi 

5 Croftwnco««t«nd«<rcf Norih5r*(b4nh 



7 Any or all EPflOM locaiion* cm o* 

diMDitd 
a Doubt* tided PC bow d 4otd«f<maiied. 



iq UfttetoelKl EPROM"* an 10 matte* II y 
pow«f««4 down tar low PO* *r 

ii Fuih/ buffered po ovP*»*« 
6 Of* boAVd wait ><■(■ eweuitry rf naadwd i? Em end Quick lo caembie 



16K DYNAMIC RAM PARTIALS 
j\ INTEL 2108 8K X 1 RAMS / 
0° 8 FOR $9.95 32 FOR $35 °Ki 

FACTORY PRIME! ' 

Huge special purchase of INTEL Dynamic RAM's. These 
are 2108-4. 300NS, 8K. Ceramic DIP The 2108 is the 
INTEL 2116 (16K) tested for either upper or lower 8K only. 
These are factory prime. Full Spec See INTEL 1978 Cat 
for details or Memory Design Handbook for application 
data. Both IMSAI and EXTENSYS did mfg S-100 RAM 
boards using these devices. — P S These devices will not 
work in the SD EPANDORAM", Please specify upper or 
lower 8K. (S1 626 or S1627). A super easy RAM to interface 
to a Z80, 16 PIN DIP. 



FOR 



CO - " 



LOW POWER - 300NS 8 FOR 

2114 RAM SALE! $37 so 

4K STATIC RAMS MAJOR BRANO. NEW PARTS 

These lie Ihe most sought tiler 2114'a. LOW POWER and 30ONS FAST 

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1 Addf«M0t m lour ■WIHII «K BtoCNa 

2 ON BOARD BANK SELECT W Cu,rr» ICro- 

mimStatoil'l AI|o»i "0 10 SUk on IUW BLANK PC BOARD W/DATA J.M 
J Umi Jim I150NS) « k Sialic Hum .„..,„„«,.., ,-„,-„„ „.-,■ .... 

« ON BOARD SELECT ABLE WAIT STATES LOW PROFILE SOCKET SET $12 
S Double tided PC Board with tarda* pthia end CuPpORT ICS A CAPS-S199S 
•m uihwi wm ami pihh corned ><ng»>i. 
I imummiWfwiuifauiMo ASSEMBLED « TESTED ADD »3S 

r Unl^ilLHnimiKim 

S PHANTOM a |umpered lo PIN «7 

9 LOW POW R UMII 1 i amp* TYPICAL from 

ma .» Von Bute 

10 Bunk PC >om can » popmereo *• any 
multieke oT « 



OUR #1 SELLING 
RAM BOARD! 



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STEREO! 



S-100 SOUND COMPUTER BOARD 



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COMPLETE KITI 

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At last. an 5.10O Board Iriet uf' l t iee the fun power ol (wo 
unooUovabte General fn u rumem* A Y3- ea to NMOr> tzomp.j fa* 
Bound ICt Allows lOU under total computer conuot to 
o*na*aat an </*tona number of epeciel Bound art-cla lor 
o^ries or any other program Some* can be called In BASIC 
ASSEMBLY UUeOUAOfc He 
KrT FEATURES 

• TWO Ql SOUND COMPUTER ICS 

• FOUR PARALLEL Ifl POUTS ON BOARD 

• USES ON BOARD AUDIO AMPS OR TOUR STEREO 

• ON BOARD PROTOTYPING AREA 

• ALL SOCKETS. PARTS AND HARDWARE ARE INCLUDED 

• PC BOARD IS 50LDERMASKEO SIL K SCREENED WITH OOLO CONTACTS 

• EASY QUICK AND PUN 10 BUILD WITH FUI L INSTRUCTIONS 

• USES PROGRAMMED I/O FOR MAXIMUM SYSTEM FLEXIBILITY 
Both Banc ami Aatemory Language Programming demotes are included 

SOFTWARE 
SCL* B *novav*lac*r , OtirSouftdCarr«nan0 LAnaueoemetiet writing Sound Enacts progr ami 
a SNAP* SCL^BrwwrcArfdae routine* *o«R»an>*r EiarmnrMootN Mwne>y-Eiern«w-Ur>drfr 
and pier Manv><> SCL - m armttaa on CP **■ compatible dratfJV of 77DI or 77TS Diahatla - 
SMH ITVt III* 77ta tlfJSO.»aiI» indvOJI 1Kewu.ce {PHOVTS ere ORG * 
ES0OH 



BLANK PC 

BOARD W/DATA 

$31 



16K STATIC RAM SS-50 BUSS 



PRICE CUT! 



$ 210 




FULLY STATIC! 



FOR SWTPC 
6800 BUSS! 



ASSEMBLED AND 
TESTED - $35 



KIT FEATURES 

I Ad reuaofe on 16K Boondarwa 
1 Uses 71 U SUTK Run 
3 Fully ByeaeioO 

* Ooubt* aided PC Board Solder na 

and a«ia. screened layout 
S AH Parti arv» Soctau inctuOM 
9 Lent Powat Ultdar I i Amt» Typical 



BLANK PC BOARD-J30 COMPLETE SOCKET SET-112 

SUPPORT ICS AND CAPS— $19.95 



4K DYNAMIC RAM BLOWOUTI 

SAME AS INTEL 21078! 

•K RAMS AT AN UNBELIEVABLE 50C EACHH! 

Prime, new. National Semi. 1979 date coded, lull ipec parta NS 
•MMS2S0-5N Same as INTEL 2107B-4. Tl TMS406O NECuPOAH etc 
We bought a HUGE OTY from a West Coast Distributor at truly 
DISTRESS PRICES! One ol the moat popular and reliable RAM'a ever 
made These parts have been used by almost all Malar Computer Main 
Frame Mlg th« woitd over! Arranged as 4K « I, 270 NS Access Time. 22 
Pin Dip These units DO NOT use multiplexed addressing, thus making 
REFRESH and other timing very almpte See INTEL MEMORY DESIGN 
HANOBOOKtoi lull application notes The NAT SEMI MEMORY DATA 
BOOK is available at most Radio Shack Stores Prime units In original 
factory lubes' 

^ aSMO-SN «0M BITS X 1 270 NS ACCESS 

«**[oa»'> 8 FOR $4.95 32 FOR $18 

°"^ FACTORY CASE (450 PCS) — $180 

Socket • Special: 22 Ptn Low Profile <Wrth Purchase el UMTs) S FOR $1. 



COMPUTER PARTS SPECIALS 

74LS17S • .99 8035 Intel Single Chip CPU - S.9S 

74LS240- 1.79 Signetics 2901 4 Bil Slice - 6.95 

74LS241 - 1.79 AMD 2903 4 Bil Super Slice - 12 50 

74LS244 - 1.79 AMD 2970S Dual Port RAM - 8.95 
74LS373- 1.99 



NEW! G.I. COMPUTER SOUND CHIP 

AYJ-S9I0 Al toatgrad In July 1979 BYTE! A lanlatncally powertul Sound S Muat 
Ornerator Portactlor uiavrrth dny SBltMkroprocMior Contains 3 Tona Channali. 
NOIU Generator 3 Channel! of Amphlu eControl IS brlEnyrXope Period Conlrot 3-fl 
Bit Parallel I/O 3 Dlo ACanwerleri pluamltch more' AKinona AOPmOIP Super easy 

$11,94 MICE CUT) 

Add 13 lot 60 page Oala Manual 



tnferfic* lo tne S- 100 or other 

SPECIAL OFFER: »4**S each 



Digital Research Computers 

** (OF TEXAS) ' 

P.O. BOX 401565 • GARLAND. TEXAS 75040 • (214) 271-3538 



TERMS: Add tl SO postage We Pay balance Oidera under S15 add 75« 
handling NoCOD Weeceapt Visa and MesietChaiga Tex. Res add 5% 
Tax Foreign Orders (excepi Canada) add 30% P 4 H 90 Day Money Back 
Guarantee on all Hems Oidera over ISO. add BS« lor Insurance 



-TRADEMARK OF DIGITAL RESEARCH 

'68' Micro .rournal 



NOT ASSOCIATED WITH DIGITAL RESEARCH OF CALIFORNIA. THE SUPPLIERS OF CPM SOFTWARE. 



.37 



DATA BASE 




k' 



MANAGER 



The Universal Data Research Data Base Management System 
(DBMS) is a comprehensive group of programs that allow 
a virtually untrained person to store and recall vast 
amounts of information in a computer system to meet 
Individual requirements. 

The DBMS is written In TSC Extended Disk Basic and 
requires at least 48K of memory to operate. All 
programs use a parameter file to allow easy adaption to 
individual systems. 

The user Is guided through these extensive programs by 
menus and sub-menus grouped by type of function. By 
simply answering prompts the user can create files, 
store any type of data and recall or manipulate It. 
The complex task of maintaining data files on the disk 
Is completely taken care of by the programs, the size 
of the files Is only limited by the disk storage 
capacity of the computer system. 

Transparent to the fixed sector length, sub-records of 
related information are created only to the size 
required to conserve disk space. These sub-records can 
contain as many as 27 different fields of Information. 
Each field in turn can contain either alphanumeric, 
integer or floating point data. 

For those users who wish to write their own specific 
tasks for the database a complete source listing of all 
the subroutines is included at no extra charge. 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM TYPES 

CREATE DATA FILES The user specifies the file name, 
password and type of different data he wishes to store. 

BUILD A FILE The user specifies the file name and is 
then prompted through the fields, he has previously 
specified, to enter the data he wishes to store. After 
verification the data is stored and the user prompted 
for the next group of data. 

EDIT A FILE The user specifies which record he wishes 
and the data for that record Is displayed. The user 
then has the option to alter any data contained by that 
record. Records can be specified by the actual record 
number or by the data being looked for by the user. 



SORT PROGRAMS To organize the data In the most 
meaningful order the user can sort any file by any 
field, create a sorted keyfile or merge two sorted 
f i les together. 

REPORT PROGRAMS To meet the users individual needs 
reports can be completely customized. From a single 
record, labels or paginated sheet the user need only 
select the data he wishes to print and see only the 
data that meets a specified criteria. Report df In it ions 
can be saved and used to rerun new reports at any time. 

FILE UTILITY PROGRAMS Enable the user to delete 
records, compress files, or modify any specified field 
data throughout the entire file. The user may also 
transfer data from one file to another. 

GENERAL UTILITY PROGRAMS A group of utilities Is 
provided to allow the user to view the directory of a 
disk, change the system date, print a source of a 
program, compare two programs for any differences or 
search a program for the occurence of any specified 
string without ever having to leave the DBMS. 



ADVANTAGES OF THE UOR - DBMS 

Learn to use the DBMS quickly. There is no 
programming language or set of coaaands to 
learn and reaeaber. 

Enjoy the t i ae savings previously required 
to collect data and prepare it. 

Get the report you want. In the exact 
format you want, at any tiae. 

See your data sorted in Its aost aeanlngful 
order. 

Create your files quickly and aalntain thea 
eas My. 

Keep your data current with easy editing 
and tile aan I pu I ta I on. 



- DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 




UNIVERSAL 
QATA 
RESEARCH 
|NC. 




FLEX 


$350.00 


UNIFLEX 


$450.00 


Special CT-82 Version 




Minus Source and Utilities 


$150.00 



2457 WEHRLE DRIVE ■ BUFFALO. NEW YORK 14221 • 716-631-3011 



38 



68 Micro Journal 



$100 00 



COMPUTER SYSTEMS CONSULTANTS, INC 
1454 LATTA LANE, CONYERS, GA. 30207 
TELEPHONE 404-4*3-1717 OR 483-4570 

SOf TWARE DEPARTMENT 

680X DISASSEMBLER SVSTEM iSM 00 til Jan 30) 
-mn» on 8800/1/9. ■nBtyies 6600 1 5 9 6502 codas 
-incK*d»» FLEX 0* SMOKE tourc* programs 
— generates MOOn ASM code fro 6800 i code 
— ganaralu 8609 ASM cod* from 0600/1/9 coda 
-general** 6805 ASM cod* and 6502 ASM cod* 
-*poon»tty generates 8809 position- independent code 
-automatic labels, optional FC8. FCC. FOB. RMBs 
— disk-lo-dlak or console, commands Irom menu or disk 
—generates FLEX or SMOKE and user.delmed names 
— includes 860X ASM language XOEF program 

680X ASSEMBLER LANGUAGE XREF PROGRAM 

-alphabetic (-reference program tor any 6609 ASM code 

6805 6800 6802 MACROS FOR TSC 6609 ASM EACH S 
—macro sets for cross-assembly on 6809 ALL 3 

FULL-SCREEN FORMS DISPLAY FOR TSC X-BASIC 
—display and edit (or terminals and video displays 
—requires 5 K bytos on 6800 or 6809 
— Interactive lorms generator documentor provided 

TSC BASIC RESEQUENCINQ AND XREF PROGRAMS 
—processes TSC BASIC. X-BASIC. PC. XPC programs 
— partial and blank-resequence capabilities 
— alphabetized iretot all variables and BASIC verbs 

TSC X-BASIC DISK SORT MERGE GENERATOR 

—Interactively generates TSC XPC BASIC programs or 
subroutines tor disk son/merge 
(Specify i' on a*, flex or smoke oisk for all programs) 

HARDWARE DEPARTMENT 

1/0 SELECTRIC INTERFACE BOARD 
—ASCII (serial or parallel) In. 2 -SOv solenoids out 
—transparent serial Interlace (RS-232/TTL 4 CTS) 
-up to 6 balls In 2706 PROM IBCO'Correspondence) 

SS-SO WIRE-WRAP BOARD (52-16 PIN EQUIVALENT) 

SS-30 WIRE-WRAP BOARD 132-16 PIN EQUIVALENT) 

SS-50 EXTENOER/TERMINATOR SCOPE-PROBE BOARDS 30 00 
— puilup SIPs lor al signal lines included 

SS-30 SERIAL INTERFACE BOARD (1 ACIA) 

SS-50 FRONT PANEL DISPLAY BOARD 
-18 LEO* display Mrs! cUg.it or address 

STEEL OISK CABINET tf-MmtfLOPPIES I POWER SUPPLY) 



i 25.00 



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NOCREOITCAROS -COO CHARGES EXTRA- US FUNOSONLY 
l POSTAOErHANO ING 5* US 1 « FOREIGN J 



DYNAMITE® 

„ "THE CODE BUSTER'' 
DISASSEMBLES 6800 & 6809 MACHINE CODE 
INTO BEAUTIFUL SOURCE\| 

v v v N 

• Convert your 6800 programs to 6809! 

• Automatic LABEL generation 

• Allows specifying FCB's, FCC's, FDB's. etc. 

• Constants input from DISK or CONSOLE 

• Automatically uses system variable NAMES 

• DISK-to-DISK or DiSK-toCONSOLE operation 
Includes 5' or 8" FLEX 9 diskette with relocatable 

object code. Full operating instructions (you'll learn in 
minutes!) 

Order your DYNAMITE" today 
Only $60.00 postpaid in U.S. MC & VISA accepted 

6809. FLEX 9, and 24K total RAM required 
order from: 



COMPUTER SYSTEMS CENTER 

13461 CNIva Blvd. 

Ch«*t«r1l*ld, MO 6301 7 

(314) 576-5020 

we also stock SWTPC, TSC, JPC products 
hours 12-9 daily, 10-5 Saturday 



% 



Dealer inquiries welcome 
FLEX is a trademark of TSC (Bless their hearts) 



6809! 

INTRODUCING THE NEW 

STATE-OF-THE-ART 

IN MICROCOMPUTER 

SOFTWARE FROM MICROWARE 

OS9-1 SINGLE USER 

OS9-1 WITH TAPE FILE MANAGER 

on 2716s $ 95.00 

on 2708s $ 95.00 

Manual & Source only $ 85.00 

OS9-1 WITH DISK FILE MANAGER 

on 2716s $150.00 

on 2708s $150.00 

Manual & Source only $150.00 

DEBUGGER PACKAGE 

(aprox 1K) 



Manual & Source 



on 2716s 
on 2708s 
on tape 
on disk 
only 



$ 50.00 
$ 50.00 
$ 35.00 
$ 35.00 
$ 50.00 




INTERACTIVE EDITOR/ASSEMBLER 

on 2716s $180.00 

on 2708s $180.00 

on tape $150.00 

on disk $150.00 

Manual & Source only $150.00 

Above items available after aprox. June i . 

1980. 



SEE GIMIX AD 
PAGES 3 A 46 



COMING SOON!!! 

BASIC09 
OS9-2 MULTIUSER 

When ordering, you must specify; type of 
CPU card, type of disk controller, size of 
media and starting address for your I/O 
ports. 

From the company that puts it all together. 
GIMIX. SMOKE. SWTPC. MICROWARE. 
ANADEX. SPINWRITER, DIGITUS. HI- 
PLOT, MICROWORKS. . . . 

H H H ENTERPRISES 

BOX 493, Laurel, MD. 

ZIP 20810 
PHONE 301-953-1155 



'68' Micro Journal 



-30 



Model 6800CL4 ColClock/TIMER 



3-AA- NICad Colli 






OKI MSMSM2 



•OLD- 



o 


Ql 




SI It 



»»U«S QHt 1,'^ SLOT fOt tWo| IIP FUNCTI NS 



ITS A HARDWARE CALENDAR/CLOCK 

• K**pt dor* and rime without *ef vicing by the computer 

• Dor-oi-w**it, month'doWT»or. Kour.mrrVMK. (1 2/24r». •> ou to leepYeor) 

• Hands off «*llbrt«AafitrolJ(Kca«t *♦ AIL (vKtiam vie idVwort 

• Orwartf battery and clwf01«t9 ciiuit keep* time for nwrrt+ti, p aw ** all 



WITH AN INTERVAL TIMER INCLUDED 

• Foe (TSCIIIo»7?9coiT<p<lllbo>)prlntw (pooling, mulil-fcn«li>9,olc 

J999S S-Oiitfflmijn Floi9Q> 110.00 

I 49 9S OoWeknod bun rtonnoston $ 6.00 
J3S00 Snipping*, handling » 3 00 






Mir wioniti • > *! 

CwnpWlo fc|(* 
Bero board* 

* FUtLY DOCUMENTED: Inllwcltont: dioommt; Inoo-r; moro HvilDpogn 
al tomato sohwaf*(owlomolkally pwl» dolo In Fk*2/¥ dolo bvftor, addt 
h>no-ef-dar M ationtbly UtllnQf, maintain* conilanl, curronl titnil«dat« 
dioploy on lop lino of CRT), Bollorloi net tnclwdod. 



<33 



COMPUWAIt Co.poroiJon 
•O. bo« 3 no 
Chtnr Hill. NJ 01003 
609- Of-? 309 



CASH) MC; or Vila 
Jonoy bur*** ADO VI 



STYLOGRAPH 

6809 
WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 



STTUMMVN w (fomwty STYLUS) will sive your 6809 
real text processing muscle. It is a fully Integrated, 
interactive, text processing system with state-of-the-art 
features such as: 

. CUtSOt RASED EDITING 

. DYNAMIC ON-SCREEN FORMATTING 

. INSTANT SCREEN UPDATING 

. rOWDVUi PRINTING OmONS 

. 54MPU, STRAIGrrmORW ARD DOCUMENTATION 

. net AND OS-9 COMPATWUTY 

o UBEAA1 UPDATE POLICY 
Versions are available lor CT-88, Soroc, Hazeltlne, Heath, DEC, 
Televktco, Beehive, Micro term, wtertube, Lear Siegler, and Glmlx 84x80 
terminals. Nee, Diablo, Qome, and tty type ptlnteis are supported. 

OS-9 versions are available from Mtooware, Box 4865, Pes /.wines, 
tows 50304. 



Price; manual only $15.00 
tty printer VI 35.00 

other printers S1 50.00 



NY add 

sales 

tax 



STTU>QRAn< a a trademam of SCMX SYSTEMS. Hex rs a trademark ol 
Technical Systems Consultants 



SONEX SySTEMS 

BOX 238 WIUIAMSVILLE NY 1 499 1 
716 63*2466 



VC-256 

GRAPHICS 

The VC-256 is a high resolution graphics interface 
for the SS-50 bus. The controller incorporates a 
variety of unique and innovative features which 
provide excellent display quality combined with 
EXTREME SIMPLICITY of use. It will drive any 
monitor with composite video input. 

Featuring . . . 



' individual pixel control 

' true X-Y addressing 

' single instruction erase 

* independent blanking control 

" jitter tree display 

industrial quality construction 
' fully socketed 



' no system memoiy utilized 
' no address space occupied 

* no splatter on update 
' no adjustments 

* no software driver 
' no software initialization 
' no throughput loss 

Specifications 

Resolution 356 x 256 (256 x 250 on some monitors) 

Bandwidth 8 MHz 

Stability crystal controlled 

Addressing mode X-Y single pixel 

Origin upper let! corner 

Writing rale 64 microseconds per pixel 

Erase time 16.7 milliseconds 

Write sync interlocked 

Blanking program controlled 

Output signal non-interlaced composite video 

Memory 65,536 bits in X-Y array on board 

Registers Write: X. Y, Z. Erase Read: status 

Port addresses 4 in I/O address space 

Physical location one slot ol 30 pin I/O bus 

Size 5 6 in x 5.6 in 

IC count 40+4 regulators 

Output 75 ohm coax 

SOFTWARE SUPPLIED 
(6809 5'/4" FLEX"*) INCLUDES: 
Camera Digitizer Program " Misc. Pattern Programs 

Exerciser Program ' Line Drawing Routine 

" Character Generator Routine (All with Source Code) 



MM 



I 

i : s ; i : 




PRICE: $350 — assembled, tested, and burned in 
AVAILABILITY: stock to 30 days WARRANTY: 90 days 
Supplied with 6 leet of cable less video monitor connector 
SEE GIMIX AO PAGES 5 4 48 
(Tt) G,M,X STOCKING DISTRIBUTOR 

N^( HA2ELWOOD COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

741 3N0. LINDBERGH, HAZELWOOD, MO •3042(314)837-3466 

MasterCharge VISA American Express Diners Club 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

HEX" IS A TRADEMARK Of TECHNICAL SYSTEMS CONSULTANTS 



40 



bet Micro Journal 



Model EP-2A-79 

EPROM Programmer 




Software available for F8. 6800. BOSS. 6080. Z*0. 6602, 1802. 
2650. 6809 based systems. 

EPROM type U selected by a personality module which plugs Into 
(he front of (he programmer Power requirement* are 115 VAC 
50/60 H*. al 15 Malts II Is supplied with a 36-Inch ribbon cable for 
conneetfrtq to microcomputer ReQulres \^ I/O com. Priced el 
$169 00 with one set of software (Additional software or disk and 
cassette for various systems ) Personality modules are shown below 

Part No. Program p^^ 

PMO TMS Tim 5I7<«> 

PMI 270« HOB t7«l 

PM2 Z7M 33(111 

PM3 IMS 2716 17(11 

PM4 TMS 2SJZ HUH 

PM5 TMS 2SI6. 27)6. 2758 ] 7 00 

PM8 MCM6D764 35,,, 

Optimal Technology, Inc. 

Blue Wood 127, Eaityovtll*, VUtfnU 22936 
Phona (KM) 973-3482 



SOUTHWEST MICROSYSTEMS 

BRING YOUR SS-50 BOS OR EXORCISOR " BUS 
6800/09 COMPUTER INTO THE 1980'sll 




FIMALLY1! A64K/2S6K MEMORY BOARD FOR 

THE SWTPC, MSI, G1MIX. D2, EXORCISOR" & 

MICROCHROMA 68 COMPUTERS 



p«iei t3B5 






(( Soft-R ware® S 

ease yourself into a new 
dimension of efficiency 

MICRO UTILITY PACKAGES 

FLEX(tm)/SSB 6800/6809 

Use Soft-R Ware(tm) to tame some of the tigers that 
routinely plague programmers and make the tigers purr 
like kittens. Easy and simple to use utilities run in fast 
machine language. 



6800 



$29.95 ALPHABETIZING PACKAGE 

$34.95 BASCOMPARE(TM) 

$34.95 DISK MAINTENANCE PACKAGE 

$39.00 MICRO PROCEDURES(TM) 

$24.95 RE-MAT/1T(TM) 

See previous ads for descriptions. 



6809 

$39.95 SSB only 

$49.95 

$49.95 SSB only 

— SSB only 



MICRO Utilities provide easy flexibility lo meet personal or 
customer needs for culomized software. Simple language 
structures to enable a novice lo build programs. The profes- 
sional will appreciate the power of mainframe software at a 
fraction of i Is cost. Ideal for the systems house requiring frequent 
customization for a wide customer base, with the speed of 
machine language processing. Extensive documentation. 



6800 or 6809 
$139.00 MICRO SORTER" 
$249.00 MICRO WRITER® 
See previous ads for descriptions. 

Numerous accounting, church, and professional packages also 
available. Menu driven lor ease of operalion with logical work 
flow procedures, all in RANDOM BASIC 



Specify 6800, 6809, FLEX", SSB, 5" or 8" disks when ordering 
Please add $2.50 for orders under $50.00 for shipping and 
handling, 



Write call for more information. 

Soft-R ware is marketed exclusively by 

RIPLEY COMPUTERS 

126 N. MAIN ST , SOUDERTON. PA 18964 

(215) 723-1509 

CHECK, MASTER CHARGE, VISA AND COD ACCEPTED 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



^ 



SOfT.lt WARE. BASCOmPARE. POWtR PATCH F- 1 ARE 

TRADEMARKS Of RIPLEY COMPUTERS 

MICRO WRITER. MICRO SORTER AND MICRO PROCEDURES ARE 

TRADEMARKS Of AUTOMOTION. INC 

•FlEX n a trademark <* TECHNICAL SYSTEMS CONSULTANTS 



2) 



'68' Micro Journal 



41 



Radio /haek 



COMPUTER 
PROGRAMS 



c Games 

Space- Action- Invaders 



<g> €& Graphi 

A^A _^^^ X x Snace-A_. 

m • Many, many more? 

£53* • Lessons • Music • Games 



Programmer's Tool Kit 

Write your own programs easier 





6609 Specialists 



. . .coming soon 
Call or Write: 

COMPUTERWARE 

Dept. C • Box 668 
Encinilas. CA 32024 
(714)436-3512 




* ORIGINAL ADVENTURE 

« RUNS ENTIRELY IN RAM - FAST 

* REQUIRES 36K OF RAM (SO0OO-S7FFF . DOS RAM) 

AVAILABLE FOR 6800 OR 6809 ON PERCOM DISK 
OR TSC FLEX DISK. OTHER SYSTEMS INQUIRE 

* $21. 9S POSTPAID 

APPLICATION SERVICES COMPANY 
12301 WALKER 
WICHITA. KANSAS 67235 



6809 



RECORD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 



RMS 



DATABASE MANAGEMENT 



•USER DEFINED RECORD FORMAT VIA DATA DICTIONARY 
•SCREEN ORIENTED. FORM FILL OUT TYPE OF ACCESS 
•OPTIONAL TWO LEVEL RECORD HIERARCHY 
•ALL FILES IN ASCII TEXT FORMAT. BASIC COMPATIBLE 
•DIRECT ACCESS BY KEY FIELD. MULTIPLE INDEX FILES 
•EXTENSIVE DOCUMENTATION. SAMPLE APPLICATION 
•VERSATILE, PROFESSIONAL QUALITY REPORT WRITER 
•BUILT-IN SORT/ MERGE 
•EASY TO USE 




RMS is a complete DATABASE MANAGEMENT package 
for the 6809 computer. It is made up of five machine 
language programs that make up the most powerful 
business programming tool available for the 6809. It can be 
used by the relative novice, to implement an incredible 
variety of information storage and retrieval applications, 
without any programming. However, the programmer can 
use RMS as part of the solution to a larger problem, saving 
many hours of unnecessary program development time. 
RMS can be used to handle data input, editing, validation, 
on-line retrieval, sorting and printed reports. Custom data 
manipulation can be filled in by the user's BASIC programs. 



SINGLE CPU LICENSE 

FLEX* $200 

OS-9+ $250 

UNIFLEX* $300 

TEAMS VISA MC PREPAID 



WASHINGTON 
COMPUTER SERVICES 

3028 SILVERN LANE 

BELLINGHAM. WA 98225 

1 (206) 734-8248 



* f-LEX *nd UNIt LE X ir* IrMfcmftrkt of Tichnical Svttam CGOfcilllftl I J n 



• OS 9 it ■ MdVMlft tt Mtcro**f# 



42 



..*6B' Micro Journal 




♦ ♦ ♦ 




Series 2 

Brings it all Together ! 






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Hardware Features 

'2 MHz. 66B00MPU 
' Double Floppy Disk Dr ve-388K bytes 
formatted 

* 32K, 48K or 84K byte dynamic RAM 

* Intelligent Video Terminal 

* Commercial typewnter keyboard wit ft 
lunctlon keys and numberic pads 

* 2 RS-232C serial ports 



Software 
Features 

* UCSD Pascal" System Software Package 
' 6600 Multi-tasking System (MTS6800) 

* Software Dynamics Basic Compiler 

* WORDMATE" Word Processor 
' Various Application Packages 



Packaging 

* Altractlve, Compact, desk- 
top enclosure 

* Light-weight, highly portable 

* Provision top 3 I/O 
Expansion modules 

* Highly reliable, gaae of 
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Price: 'Quantity 1 (one) end user 64K RAM-368K disk UCSD PASCAL SYSTEM- $3450.00 




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18006 Adrla Maru Lane 
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Telex 194389 



EUROPEAN HEADQUARTERS 
WAVE MATE INTERNATIONAL 
159 Ch de Vleurger 
1050 Bruxehes. Belgium 
(02)649-1070 Talex 24050 



'68' Micro Journal 



.43 



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-50 6800-6809 55-50 G 
64<K MEMORY BOARD 
kit or assembled 



1981 



otxr mov™ 

SMS- 10 80ARO 

• rot ss-so i ss-s«c 

• t ACIA POTtrS laiiil«Ml>E«l 

• » PM PORTS A*8lMH«MMMel 

• ON SCAM SAKE SATE GtK. 

• mt bisk comweier 

■ (MM 5CTAXXT0K 



&w vim WMT UK APPRESS FDR our catalog 



• USES IE* CCSr 41 }6 DYNAMIC RAM 

■ rOTAl TtAHSPAtlMT KFttSHi OPERATES tltt STATIC 

• ECU PCKFR C0VSUWT1PN 7AUP 9 »J 50On> f-lf ( -5 VPC 

• AODRESSABtE TO Utt l-K 8EPCK5 

• CAW SE USED «ITM !(■* <» ii% 

• EJCTEKPf P ASTTOSSIMG TO K-80ARPS 

■ USES MCJMf APKESS MUETIPEEWR AM? 
"CUM UfMOTV CONTWlttf 

■ OFERATTS 0* SS-50 AVO SS-SOC 8USS 

■ SOEPER MASK AAA) S1USC REEWP WARPS 

' Alt MTMffltV CHIPS ASF Pf?!ME 4N$-?S0i« 

• HITS AWP WARPS A*E IV STOC* 

PRICES 

' KIT «ITN IMC RAM } 114.00 

• KIT HIT* »«« RAM J1S.00 

' ASM. I TfSlfP MUX l«« RAM... til. Oil 

• ASM. ( TESTEP tJITH «« RAM... J15.00 



M-SYS" 
64-K 

DYNAMIC 



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your 

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404 922 1620 

10B0 IRIS DR 
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CONYERS.ES A. 
30207 



BLITZ 



SCREEN EDITOR FOR THE CT-82 

IDEAL FOR WORD PROCESSING OR PROGRAMMING 
THERE IS NO FASTER / EASIER WAY TO EDIT TEXT 
IT ALL HAPPENS IMMEDIATELY ON THE SCREEN SO 
YOU SEE EXACTLY WHAT YOU ARE DOING; INSERT 
CHARACTER, DELETE CHARACTER. INSERT LINE. 
DELETE LINE. SCROLL UP. SCROLL DOWN 

' RUNS ON 6800 OR 6809 UNDER TSC'sFLEX 

' AVAILABLE ON 5 OR 8 INCH DISKETTE 

' BEST OF ALL- YOU CAN 8UY THE ENTIRE 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE SOURCE CODE. SO YOU 
CAN ADD YOUR OWN CUSTOM FEATURES 

> FROMTHE COMPANYTHAT BROUGHTYOU THE 
MICR0PI4-USER PILOT/BASIC/EDITOR PACKAGE 

$60- OBJECT ONLY 

$100 - SOURCE AND OBJECT 



206-734-8248 



>H Nuum 
r l_i*nn« Istond Wa*r»natDn9B2B2 



How much wilt it cost to 




SIM68 
$34.95 

plus shipping 




LSI Enterprises Ltd. 
P. 0. 1227 

Woodhnen, NY 11471 
212-631-9242 



/~\ 



\J 



VISA and 
Master Card 

accepted 



upgrade your software 
to run on your 6809? 

Run your 6800 software on your 6809 without cross 
assembly or modification. 

Simulates all 6800 opcodes! 

Available on FLtt(r) or Per com disk & KC tape. 

(minifloppy only) 

(r) - registered tm of TSC 

US Shipping -Ji; Foreign varies 

'68' Micro Journal 



HEMENWAY ASSOCIATES 
SOFTWARE SOURCE BOOKS™ 

Your 6800 ia up and running with HEMENWAY ASSOCIATES' complete software system. Software 
Source Books provide a powerful yet extensible programming package for business, scientific, or 
personal uses. 

Combining detailed descriptions with COMPLETE SOURCE CODE LISTINGS, these books explain 
the internal operations and algorithms used in HEMENWAY ASSOCIATES' popular systems soft- 
ware. 

Imagine getting a complete 6600 software library, and at these suprisingiy low prices. 

Remember, these are not just books; they are Software Source Books™ complete software re- 
sources! Order them today; VISA and MASTERCHARGE accepted. 



CP/68 OPERATING SYSTEM 

The moat powerful operating system available 
for the 6800 family of microprocessors, this disk- 
baaed system features great flexibility. The user 
can add commands for special purposes. A 
single transient Peripheral Interchange Program 
(PIP) transfers data between devices. The sys- 
tem ia relocatable anywhere in memory and fits 
in leas than 8K. Other features include device- 
independent I/O and dynamic file allocation. 

U.S. $34.95 
Int. $52 45 

XA6B09 
MACRO LINKING CROSS-ASSEMBLER 

This new two-paas program generates reloca- 
table and linkable code (requires LINK68). Resi- 
dent on any 6800 system, XA6809 lets you pro- 
duce code for a 6809 right now. This assembler 
has full macro facilities and features a COMMON 
section for the production of ROMable code, Con- 
ditional Assembly and fast execution. 

U.S. $24.95 
Int. $31.50 

LINK68 LINKING LOADER 



RA6BOOML RELOCATABLE 
MACRO ASSEMBLER 

This two-pass assembler produces a program 
listing, a sorted symbol table listing, and reloca- 
table object code. The object code ia loaded and 
linked with other assembled modules using 
LINK68. This book fully describes the 6800 as- 
sembly language and all major routines used, 
and includes flow charta, details on interfacing 
the assembler. Croaa-referenced. showing all 
calling and called-by routines, pointers, flags 
and temporary variables. 

U.S. $24 95 
Int. $37.45 

Structured BASIC language 
STRUBAL + ™COMPILER 

The compiler features variable precision from 4 
to 14 digits for business or scientific uses and 
Structured Programming forma. It produces Re- 
locatable and linkable code. You can create 
data structures with mixed data types, COM- 
MON and DUMMY sections. STRUBAL + ™ in- 
cludes a complete scientific package. It allows 
for string-handling and is extensible. 

U.S. $49.95 
Int. $74.95 



This is s one-paas linking losder which allows 
separately translated relocatable object mod- 
ules to be loaded and linked together to form a 
single executable load module, and to relocate 
modules in memory. It produces a load map and 
a load module in Motorola MIKBUG loader for- 
mat. This book provides everything necessary 
for learning about this system and the nature of 
linking loader design in general. 

U.S. $7.95 
Int. $11.95 



(«Ht c* ** otiuiwa mil 


, HEMENWAY ASSOC., INC. 

101 TREWONT STREET 

BOSTON. MA 02108 
•u. (6 17)429- 1931 

ROB POaiUX A ptfiOMQ v I1M WOK FOB WW* IV 






POM tCHTM 4M(ltaC* ftfiO t 't ftOOK P 
Ml Or*«H DC6f«i*TOKfl AfiC t) 00 ■ 


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45 



* CT-64 




CT-1024 



* DMA VIDEO ADAPTER 
FOR YOUR TERMINAL 

• DMA (ability (o update anyplace on the screen 
directly) 

• HIGH SPEED DISPLAY (fast as any videoboard) 

• KEYBOARD CONTROL (of baud rate and paging 
/scrolling) 

• DOCUMENTATION (includes source listing that 
replaces Outee) 

J.8.I. adapter with memory $16295, J.B.I, adapter 
without memory $149.95. Source Code on Disk 
$5.00 - Tape $3.50 

Provide your system configuration and software. 
Terms: cash, MC. Visa or C.O.D. plus $3.50 
shipping and handling. 

Johnson Micro Computer 

2607 E. Charleston 

Las Vegas, Nev. 89104 

1-702-384-3354 



•I«I«I«I«!«!«I«I«I«I«I«!«I«I«I«I«I«I«I«I«I«I«I«I*l2. 

F&D Associates _. - _ 7 

SSO 7 
1210 Todd Road jggjS 2 

New Plymouth, Ohio 7 

4S ** 4 s „, , c , , 614-592-5721- 

Send far free Catalog ~ 

Visa •— Master-Charge — C.O.D. JL 

.•UI«!*!*!«UUUUI«I*I*I*I«I*I«I«I«I«I«1«1«I«I« # 



* 



s 

• 
7 
7 

«T 

7 

7 



This Month's Feature 
The "BIG MOTHER" 



The BMB- 1 is a large mother board lor SSO systems II consists 
ol twelve SO pin and eight 30 pm slots on 1/8" thick epoxy-glass 
material The I/O address decoding has been improved over 
some earlier mother hoards ottered for the SSO bus Each I/O 
"slot" has been uniquely decoded to either four or eight 
addresses depending on option sellings. The entire I/O section 
occ upies either 32 or 64 addresses and does not 'overlap up 
thru the 4k block where it is assigned DIP switches or jumpers 
can be used to assign the addresses anywhere in memory An 
extra line has been provided so (hat boards on the SO pin bus 
can "steal I/O addresses it desired 

The board can be cut at each lour slot section to form four and 
eight slot versions and the I/O section can be sheared ott and 
Molex connectors added to make an I/O adapter board to add 
extra slots to the front or rear Of a SO pin bus 

$55 00 



J> BMB-1 Bare Board and Documentation 

7 add $2.50 s/h per order 

7l«M«M«M«M«M«M«M«M«UUM«i«i«(«i« 



STAR-KITS 




6800 HARDWARE 

SBC-02 single board computer uses 6802 with RAM. 
ROM. I O ideal controller, intelligent interlace, and 
more Pnnted circuit board is S25, complete controller 
kit S75. wired and tested Si 50 Also available HUM- 
BUG (see below). Basic m ROM. etc 

CT-PS serial, parallel interface card AClA-type interface 
tor RS-232C terminal and or a parallel keyboard Makes 
keyboard look like a terminal with absolutely no program 
patching Ideal for video board based systems Bare 
board S20. complete kit S55. wired Si 00 

6800 FIRMWARE 

HUMBUG monitor Totally MIKBUG compatible, plus 
single-stepping, multiple breakpoints, formatted mem- 
o y dumps, multiple port control and more. Fantastic!" 
say our customers 2K version S40 on 2708 or 2716 
EPROM with source listing. Alternate versions, includ- 
ing video board versions available 

PEP.COM DOS PATCH gives more disk space, bigger 
directory Best of all, adds error detection. correction to 
your system so your files are guaranteed nght We 
correct your 2708s tor S40. or supply three new ones for 
S50 

6800 SOFTWARE 

BASIC UTILITY PACKAGE renumbers, pretty-pnnts, 
pnnts variable and transfer indexes, compares, shor- 
tens Basic programs. On Percom or miniFlex" disk for 
S30 

CHECK 'N TAX balances your checkbook, finds errors, 
prepares income tax data On Percom. mimFlex*, Flex 
2 0' or Flex 9' disk lor S40. 

SORT-MERGE —the only one tor Percom disk systems, 
sorts even lull-disk files S35 

BASTRAN a Basic preprocessor Adds long vanable 
names, line labels instead ol line numbers, and other 
conveniences to any standard 6800 disk Basic. On 
miniFlex' or Flex 2.0" disk for S30 

6800 CROSS-ASSEMBLER written m Basic Assemble 
6800/6802 programs on your new 6809 (o your 370 at 
work"). Available on 5 disk. KC cassette, or TRS-80 
Level II cassette lor $9.95. 

GAME PACK with Eliza and 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe 5" disk or 
KC cassette Si 5. 

Send sase for catalog or more information, 'are 
trademarks of TSC. 

STAR-KITS, P.O. Box 209, ML Kisco NY 10549 

914-241-1027 



46 



68 Micro Journal 



THOMAS INSTRUMENTATION 

*** SS-50 MODEM CARD *** 

'Auto answer/originate 'Uses the Bell 103 Modem standard (0-300 baud) 'Use with DAA-CBS 
interface "Dial pulsing capability & software listings included for user "dial-up" and/or "answer" 
"Extra features: 'Tone dial capability *2 extra RS-232 serial ports "Real time clock/calendar 
*2 extra parallel poits 

"Asm. & tested, with extra features $395.00 

"Asm. & tested, without extra features $325.00 

"Special parts kit (bare board, 2 filters, relay, and transformer) $195.00 

"Software object and source on flex disk .. . $10.00 "bare board $49,00 

A/T $425.00 "* SS-50 24K RAM CARD *** B/C $49.00 

•Decoded for extended addressing "6800, 6802, 6809 compatible "6-4K blocks individually 
addressable 0-F "Low power consumption (typ. 3 amps) "Add memory 1 K at a time using low cost 
2114L's ($5.00 ea) "Gold edge connectors 
A/T with 16K $325.00; with 8K $225.00; with 1K $150.00 

A/T $195.00 ... SP-1*** B/C $49.00 

"Peifect for the user who wishes to design his own special interface, but doesn't want the bother of 
decoding and interfacing to the processor buss. Three PIA's, four ACIA's, and one PTM (3-6821 , 4-6850, 
1-6840) are already buffered and decoded. Three TO-220 regulators ( +5, +12, -12) "Pad spacing 
permits the use of most standard sockets from 8 to 64 pins "Accommodates a mix of 38 14 & 16 pin 
sockets 

A/T $95.00 — TRANSITION CARD *** B/C $49.00 

"A component part of Thomas Instrumentation's Backplane System "Contains all the necessary 
hardware to interface 8 SS-30 slots to one SS-50 slot "Contains all the logic necessary for use with a 
6800 or 6809 system "Provisions for optional (not supplied) on-board baud rate generator and slow 
memory have been made 

A/T $95.00 "* CASSETTE INTERFACE CARD *** B/C $49.00 

"Plugs into Thomas Instrumentation's CPU Card "Uses circuitry licensed from and compatible with the 
JPC High Speed interface 'Includes dual relays for motor control 
Software drivers on cassette $25.00 Software drivers in EPROM $35.00 

"RCA Keyboards Model 601 $80.00 Model 611 $100.00 CPU Cable $12.00 

"Super CPU assembled with source listing BACKPLANES/MOTHERBOARDS 

but without 2K-EPROMS (2-2708 $235.00 "16 Position SS-50 $80.00 

"Monitor in two 2708 EPROMS $ 29.00 "12 Position SS-50 $60.00 

"CPU bare card, doc, & source $ 59.00 ' 8 Position SS-50 $40.00 

"Video ram asm. 7x9 chars 64x16 line $195.00 " 4 Position SS-50 $20.00 

"Video ram bare card, doc, & source $ 49.00 * 8 Position SS-30 $39.00 

"Parallel I/O asm 100 I/O lines "Connectors: 

incl. 5 PIAU for 10 ports $139.00 Gold $1.60 ea. (M or F) 

•Parallel I/O bare card & doc. $ 49.00 Tin M $.40 ea. F $.50 ea. 

•Wire-wrap/Prototype bare card $ 39.00 

Ask about Thomas Instrumentation's Low Cost System 

and the new Rack Mount Chassis 

DEALERS FOR SWTPC, GIMIX, AND TSC 

'All Thomas Instrumentation's cards come with full documentation including software source listings 

where applicable 'All assembled cards are burned in at 1 50F and fully tested with Gold conn. 'Bare 

card prices do not include edge connectors 

THOMAS INSTRUMENTATION 

168 EIGHTH STREET AVALON, NJ 08202 (609)967-4280 

NJ RES. INCLUDE 5% SALES TAX 

CONT. USA INCLUDE $2.00 SHIPPING, CANADA $5.00, FOREIGN $10.00 

MASTERCARD, VISA and C.O.D. ACCEPTED 

'68' Micro Journal 47 



GIMX 
PROUDLY 
PRESENTS!!! 




GlMIX 6809 1 FUNCTION LAYOUT 



SS50C 6809 CPU 

The 6809 CPU card will be available in a standard version and our 6809 PLUS version that is fully socketed to 
allow adding options at anytime. 

+ A 6840 timer package that provides 3 independent 16 bit counters is included on all 6809 PLUS cards. 

+ A 951 1 or 9512 Arithmetic Processors option with its own independent crystal that allows you to use 2, 3, 
or 4 MHz parts in any combination with the 6809 running at 1, 1.5. or 2 MHZ. 

+ 1K ol scratchpad RAM 

+ A Time of Day Clock option with battery back-up. With this option you can also substitute IK ol CMOS 
RAM that will also be battery backed up. 

+ User selectable processor speeds without having to change the crystal. 

32Kol PROM. ROM or RAM. Both versions have 4 sockets that can each hold from 1K to 8K parts. Single or multi- 
ple voltage parts can be used on the PLUS version. The standard version only allows the use of single voltage 
parts. 

All on board devices and options can use extended addressing so that they will only respond to that page to 
which they are set. 

The card is double bulfered and allows versatility in the use ol software and memory address control disciplines. 

Please note that this card does not have an on board baud rate generator, and must be used in systems where 
baud rates (if needed) are provided elsewhere in the system. 



Gimix 



1337 WEST 37th PLACE • CHICAGO, I L 60609 • (312)9275510 • TWX 910-221-4055 



OlkMI* iftflQHOST- *rt<ta»tar«ltfM)«fTi»rKlOfGlMIXInc 



tWOGIMlxInc. 



48 



68 Micro Journal 



SS-50- 
UCSD PASCAL 



FOR 6809 SYSTEMS 
56K RAM REQUIRED. 

IMMMHD1ATT: DELIVERY FOR SWTJ'C. GIMIX USERS. K" OR SW DISKETTES 
SMOKE SICNAl. BROADCASTING USERS, INQUlKF 

FREE! UCSD PASCAL USERS MANUAL PLUS 
SVVTPC IMPLEMENTATION NOTES WITH CSM 



CSM Ui's. PASCA1 Compiler, Screen 
rdiUir. YALOF (UlM rMw fol 
h.irdiiipv lirnitn.iUI, Filer, 
Linker. Library, St'tup, Hiiiiivr 

Interpreter, imi>- *250.oo 

CSI-2 BASK i emptier, I 2 Editor, PMch 
Dtawembhs Calculator s 100.00 





CSl-3 MACRO AswmMi-rs for 681W ,ind 
MK)0 S 100.00 

ALL THREE DISKS AND MANUAL 
fSYSTEMI . 5419.00 

Now Available! rascal ustr-grimp enm- 
palihlir (IBM 3790) Disk Driver UnutiniS 

$20 
(SWI l"C L\juipin<»iU compatible) 



UCSD PASCAL 
MEETS BUSINESS 

NEW MICRO-WINCHESTER DISK DRIVE FOR MICROCOMPUTERS 

>U CS1 announces a new option for their UDS 470 microcom- 
puter: the micro-winchester hard disk drive. AvErSable 4Q 
1980 the micro-winchester drive will replace one of the two 
mini-floppy drives now standard with the UDS 470, thereby 
bringing a dramatic increase in on-line storage capacity. 

This increased storage — 6.38 Megabytes — makes the UDS 470 viable for business 
applications requiring more on-line storage than previously available with floppy 
disk drives. 

The micro-winchester drive will fit directly into the existing UDS 470 cabinet. Thus 
customers will realize the benefit of increased storage capacity without the disadvan- 
tage of finding space for a larger cabinet or an additional disk drive enclosure. 

CALL TOLL-FREE (800) 255-4411 

Continental U.S.A. only. (Kansas residents call (913) 371-6136) 




/gfi. 



COMTffOL SYSTEMS, tntc. 



MtcFtosrsreMS o/v/s/cw 






1317 Central, Kansas City, KS 66102 (9131 371-6136 • 5200 West 73rd St.. Minneapolis, MN 55435 

Drawer EE, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (804) 564-9350 

"UCSD Pascal" is a registered trademark of The Regents of the University of California. 



1612)831-0214 



66' Micro Journal 
3013Hamill Rd. 
Hinson. TN 37343 



?SZOC \-0 



qoi xoa 
3/» ?z«»ooo 



Second Class Postage Paid 
Al Chattanooga, TN 
ISSN 0194-S02S 



,\ 



e 




We know you hardcore bit hack- 
ers will recognize the computing 
power derived from combining the 
FORTH language with the 6809. 
today's most advanced 8 bit 
microprocessor. 

And we know you'll understand 
this machine's 16 bit math, indirect 
addressing and two stacks are 
ideally suited for implementing 
FORTH 

But... should anyone need further 
convincing that FORTH provides a 
new dimension in power, speed 
and ease of operation, consider 
the following: 

♦ It's a modern, modular, structured- 
programming high-level com- 
piled language, 

♦ It's a combined interpreter, 
compiler, and operating system 

• It permits assembler code level 
control of machine, runs near 
speed of assembler code, and 
uses less memory space than 
assembler code, 

• It increases programmer produc- 
tivity and reduces memory hard- 
ware requirements. 



Call or write today. 




KENYON 



1 



• It replaces subroutines by 
individual words and related 
groups of words called 
Vocabularies. These are quickly 
modified and tested by editing 
1024-character text blocks, called 
screens, using built-in editor. 

tFORTH is a basic system imple- 
mented for SS-50 buss 6809 systems 
with the TSC FLEX 9.0 disk oper- 
ating system. It is available on 5'/4" 
or 8" single density soft-sectored 
floppy disks. $100.00 

tFORTH + consists of tFORTH plus a 
complement of the following 
FORTH source code vocabularies: 
full assembler, cursor controlled 
screen editor, case statements, 
extended data types, general I/O 
drivers. $250.00 

firmFORTH is an applications pack- 
age for use with tFORTH, It provides 
for recompilation of the tFORTH 
nucleus, deletion of superfluous 
code and production of fully 
rommable code. $350.00 

Also available for 6800 






MICROSYSTEMS 

3350 Walnut Bend • Houston. Texas 77042 • (713) 978-6933 



I